1 Nov 02:00 2005

### November 1: Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace

```   In mathematics, the eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and eigenspaces of a
transformation are important properties of this transformation.  These
key concepts play a major role in mathematics and, in particular, in
linear algebra and functional analysis, as well as in numerous applied
disciplines.  The prefix eigen emphasizes the fact that these
properties are important characteristics of the transformation.  In
many common cases knowing all eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a
transformation is equivalent to the explicit knowledge of the
transformation.  The word eigen is German for "own", "peculiar", or
"individual": the most likely translation into English mathematical
jargon would be "characteristic", and some older references do use the
expressions "characteristic value", "characteristic vector" and so
forth, or even "eigenwert" which is German for eigenvalue, but the
more distinctive term "eigenvalue" has become standard.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eigenvalue%2C_eigenvector_and_eigenspace

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1512:
The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel was re-painted in fresco by
Michelangelo.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistine_Chapel)

1521:
Ferdinand Magellan led the first European expedition to navigate the
Strait of Magellan, the passage immediately south of mainland South
America, connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans.
```

2 Nov 01:03 2005

### November 2: Geology of the Grand Canyon area

```   The geology of the Grand Canyon area exposes one of the most complete
sequences of rock anywhere, representing a period of 1.4 billion years
of the Earth's history in that part of North America.  The major
sedimentary rock layers exposed in the Grand Canyon and in the Grand
Canyon National Park area range in age from 2 billion to about 200
million years old.  Most were deposited in warm, shallow seas and near
ancient, long-gone sea shores.  Both marine and terrestrial sediments
are represented, including fossilized sand dunes from an extinct
desert.  Uplift of the region started about 75 million years ago in the
Laramide orogeny, a mountain-building event that is largely
responsible for creating the Rocky Mountains to the east.  The canyon
did not start to form until 5.3 million years ago when the Gulf of
California opened up and thus lowered the river's base level (its
lowest point) from that of large inland lakes to sea level.  About 2
million years ago volcanic activity started to deposit ash and lava
over the area.  The nearly 40 identified rock layers and 14 major
unconformities (gaps in the geologic record) of the Grand Canyon form
one of the most studied sequences of rock in the world.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_the_Grand_Canyon_area

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1817:
The Bank of Montreal, Canada's oldest chartered bank, opened in
Montréal, Québec.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Montreal)

```

3 Nov 03:17 2005

### November 3: Sunset Boulevard (1950 film)

```   Sunset Boulevard is a 1950 film noir containing elements of drama,
horror, and black comedy.  Directed and cowritten by Billy Wilder, it
was named for the famous boulevard that runs through Los Angeles and
Beverly Hills.  William Holden plays down-on-his-luck screenwriter Joe
Gillis and Gloria Swanson is Norma Desmond, a faded movie star who
entraps the unsuspecting Gillis into her fantasy world in which she
dreams of making a triumphant return to the screen.  Director Cecil B.
DeMille and gossip columnist Hedda Hopper portray themselves, and the
film includes cameo appearances by leading silent film figures Buster
Keaton, H.  B.  Warner and Anna Q.  Nilsson.  Praised by many critics
when
first released, Sunset Boulevard was nominated for eleven Academy
Awards and won three.  It is widely accepted as a classic, often cited
as one of the most noteworthy films of American cinema.  Deemed
"culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress in
1989, Sunset Boulevard was included in the first group of films
selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunset_Boulevard_%281950_film%29

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1793:
French playwright, journalist and outspoken feminist Olympe de Gouges
was guillotined for her revolutionary ideas.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympe_de_Gouges)

1838:
```

4 Nov 02:00 2005

### November 4: Cheese

```   Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats,
sheep, or other mammals.  The milk is curdled using some combination of
rennet and acidification.  Bacteria acidify the milk and play a role in
defining the texture and flavor of most cheeses.  Some cheeses also
feature molds, either on the outer rind or throughout.  There are
hundreds of types of cheese.  Different styles and flavors of cheese
are the results of using different species of bacteria and molds,
different levels of milk fat, variations in length of aging, and
differing processing treatments.  Cheeses are eaten raw or cooked,
alone or with other ingredients.  As they are heated, most cheeses melt
and brown.  Some cheeses melt smoothly, especially in the presence of
acids or starch.  Cheese fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a
good example of a smoothly-melted cheese dish.  Other cheeses turn
elastic and stringy when they melt, a quality that can be enjoyed in
dishes like pizza.  Some cheeses melt unevenly, their fats separating
as they heat, while a few acid-curdled cheeses, including paneer and
ricotta, do not melt at all and can become firmer when cooked.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheese

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1852:
Count Cavour became the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, which
soon expanded to become the Kingdom of Italy.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_Camillo_Benso_di_Cavour)

1869:
```

6 Nov 17:21 2005

### November 6: Witold Lutosławski

```   Witold Lutosławski was one of the major European composers of the
20th century, and possibly the most significant Polish composer since
Chopin.  Lutosławski studied piano and composition in Warsaw, and
during World War II he made a living in that city by playing the piano
in bars.  In the late 1940s and early 1950s his music was banned as
formalist by the Stalinist authorities.  In the last three decades of
the century he became the pre-eminent musician of his country, and was
presented with a large number of international honours, awards and
prizes.  Lutosławski's early compositions were overtly influenced by
Polish folk music; from the late 1950s onwards he developed his own
characteristically dense harmonies and innovative aleatory techniques.
His works include four symphonies and a Concerto for Orchestra; he
also composed concertos and song cycles for renowned musicians
including Mstislav Rostropovich, Peter Pears, and Dietrich
Fischer-Dieskau.  He was also a notable conductor of his own music.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witold_Lutos%C5%3Fawski

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1789:
John Carroll, S.J., was appointed Bishop of Baltimore, the first
Roman Catholic bishop in the United States.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Carroll)

1860:
Abraham Lincoln became the first
Republican candidate to win the U.S. presidential election.
```

11 Nov 01:54 2005

### November 11: Peterborough Chronicle

```   The Peterborough Chronicle is one of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles that
contains unique information about the history of England after the
Norman Conquest.  According to philologist J.A.W. Bennett, it is the
only prose history in English between the Conquest and the later 14th
century.  When William the Conqueror took England and Anglo-Norman
became the official language, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles generally
ceased.  The monks of Peterborough Abbey, however, continued to compile
events in theirs.  While the Peterborough Chronicle is not professional
history, it is one of the few first-hand accounts of the period 1070
to 1154 in England written in English and from a non-courtly point of
view.  It is also a valuable source of information about the early
Middle English language itself.  The linguistic innovations recorded in
its second continuation are plentiful, and at least one innovation,
the feminine pronoun "she", is first recorded in the Peterborough
Chronicle.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peterborough_Chronicle

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1675:
Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to
find the area under the graph of a function y = f(x) by using
antiderivatives.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Leibniz)

1930:
A patent was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their
```

13 Nov 04:06 2005

### November 13: S-mine

```   The German S-mine (Schrapnellmine) is the most well-known version of a
class of mines known as bounding mines, which launch into the air
about waist height to then explode, propelling shrapnel horizontally
at lethal speeds.  The S-mine was an antipersonnel landmine developed
by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and used extensively by German forces
during World War II.  It was designed to be used in open areas and to
attack unshielded infantry.  Two versions were produced, designated by
the year of their first production: the SMi-35 and SMi-44.  There are
only minor differences between the two models (TM-E 30-451, 1945).  The
S-mine entered production in 1935 and served as a key part of the
defensive strategy of the Third Reich.  Until production ceased with
the defeat of Germany in 1945, Germany produced over 1.93 million
S-mines.  These mines were responsible for inflicting heavy casualties
and slowing, or even repelling, drives into German-held territory
throughout the war.  The design was lethal, successful and much
imitated, and remains one of the definitive weapons of World War II.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-mine

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1887:
Bloody Sunday clashes in Trafalgar Square
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloody_Sunday_%281887%29)

1970:
Bhola cyclone: A 100-mph tropical cyclone hit the densely populated
Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), killing an
```

14 Nov 01:00 2005

### November 14: Pan American World Airways

```   Pan American World Airways was the principal international airline of
the United States from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
Originally founded as a seaplane service out of Key West, Florida, the
airline became a major company; it was credited with many innovations
that shaped the international airline industry, including the
widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized
reservation systems.  Identified by its blue globe logo and the use of
"Clipper" in aircraft names and call signs, the airline was a cultural
icon of the 20th century, and the unofficial flag carrier of the
United States.  Pan Am went through two incarnations after 1991.  The
second Pan Am operated from 1996 to 1998 with a focus on low-cost,
long-distance flights between the U.S. and the Caribbean.  The current
incarnation, based in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and known as the Pan
Am "Clipper Connection," is operated by Boston-Maine Airways.  The
airline currently flies to destinations in the northeastern United
States, Florida, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_American_World_Airways

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1228:
Frederick of Isenberg was executed for the murder of his cousin
Engelbert of Berg, the Archbishop of Cologne.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_of_Isenberg)

1889:
Nellie Bly, reporter for the New York World, departed on
```

15 Nov 01:32 2005

### November 15: Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

```   Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 was discovered in a photograph taken on the
night of March 24, 1993 with the Schmidt telescope at the Mount
Palomar Observatory in California, and was the ninth comet discovered
by astronomers Carolyn and Eugene M.  Shoemaker and David Levy.  It
turned out to be the first comet observed orbiting a planet (Jupiter,
in this case) and not the Sun.  The comet was also unusual because it
was in fragments, due to a close encounter with Jupiter in July 1992
when it approached closer to the planet than its Roche limit and was
pulled apart by tidal forces.  Between July 16 and July 22 1994, the
fragments of the comet collided with Jupiter's southern hemisphere at
60 kilometres per second (37 miles per second), providing the first
direct observation of the collision of two solar system objects.  The
collision resulted in disruptions in Jupiter's atmosphere, such as
plumes and bubbles of gas, and dark spots in the atmosphere which
remained visible for several months.  The event was closely observed
and recorded by astronomers worldwide as a result of its tremendous
scientific importance, and also generated a large amount of coverage
in the popular media.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Shoemaker-Levy_9

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Today's selected anniversaries:

655:
Penda of Mercia was defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of
Winwaed.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penda_of_Mercia)

```

16 Nov 01:10 2005

### November 16: Felice Beato

```   Felice Beato was a British and Italian photographer.  He was one of the
first photographers to take pictures in East Asia and one of the first
war photographers.  He is also noted for his genre works, portraits,
and views and panoramas of the architecture and landscapes of Asia and
the Mediterranean region.  Beato's travels to many lands gave him the
opportunity to create powerful and lasting images of countries, people
and events that were unfamiliar and remote to most people in Europe
and North America.  To this day his work provides the key images of
such events as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Second Opium War
and his photographs represent the first substantial oeuvre of what
came to be called photojournalism.  He had a significant impact on
other photographers, and Beato's influence in Japan, where he worked
with and taught numerous other photographers and artists, was
particularly deep and lasting.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felice_Beato

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1384:
Jadwiga was crowned "King of Poland", although she was a woman.