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[Daily article] September 3: TAM (tank)

The Tanque Argentino Mediano ("Argentine Medium Tank", or "TAM") is the
main battle tank in service with the Argentine Army. Lacking the
experience and resources to design a tank, the Argentine Ministry of
Defense contracted German company Thyssen-Henschel. The vehicle was
based on the chassis of the German Marder infantry fighting vehicle. The
TAM met the Argentine Army's requirement for a modern light-weight and
fast tank with a low silhouette and sufficient firepower to defeat
contemporary armored threats. Development began in 1974, and full-scale
production started in 1979. Economic difficulties halted production in
1983, but manufacturing began anew in 1994 until the army's order of 200
tanks was fulfilled. The TAM series includes seven different variants,
such as a 155 mm (6.1 in) self-propelled howitzer and a self-propelled
mortar vehicle. In total, over 280 such vehicles were built, including
armored personnel carriers, artillery and mortar pieces. The TAM has
never seen combat, although 17 VCTP (Infantry Fighting Vehicles based on
the TAM chassis) were deployed to Croatia for the United Nations
UNPROFOR peacekeeping mission.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TAM_(tank)>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1189:

Richard the Lionheart was crowned King of England in
Westminster.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England>

1777:
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[Daily article] September 2: Lionel Palairet

Lionel Palairet (1870–1933) was an English amateur cricketer who
played for Somerset and Oxford University. A graceful right-handed
batsman, he was selected to play Test cricket for England twice in 1902;
an unwillingness to tour during the English winter limited his Test
appearances. For Somerset, he frequently opened the batting with Herbie
Hewett. In 1892, they shared a partnership of 346 for the first wicket,
an opening stand that set a record for the County Championship and
remains Somerset's highest first-wicket partnership. In that season,
Palairet was named as one of the "Five Batsmen of the Year" by Wisden.
Over the following decade, he was one of the leading amateur batsmen in
England. He passed 1,000 first-class runs in a season on seven
occasions, and struck two double centuries. After 1904, he appeared
infrequently for Somerset, though he played a full season in 1907 when
he was chosen to captain the county. He retired from first-class cricket
in 1909, having scored over 15,000 runs. Contemporaries judged Palairet
to have one of the most attractive batting styles of the period, and his
obituary in The Times described him as "the most beautiful batsman of
all time".

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_Palairet>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1792:

French Revolution: Due to an overwhelming fear that foreign
armies would attack Paris and prisoners would revolt, thousands of
people were summarily executed.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_Massacres>
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] September 1: Hilda Rix Nicholas

Hilda Rix Nicholas (1884–1961) was an Australian artist. After
training under leading Heidelberg School painter, Frederick McCubbin,
she travelled to Europe in 1907 and studied in both London and Paris.
Visiting Tangiers in 1912, she was one of the first Australians to paint
post-impressionist landscapes and was made a member of the Société des
Peintres Orientalistes Français. During World War I, she met and
married Major George Nicholas; she spent only three days with him before
he returned to duty and was killed on the Western Front. Returning to
Australia, she held an exhibition of over a hundred works in Melbourne's
Guild Hall. Many sold, including In Picardy, purchased by the National
Gallery of Victoria. Spending the mid-1920s in Europe, she enjoyed
significant success and was made an Associate of the Société Nationale
des Beaux-Arts. In 1926, Rix Nicholas returned again to Australia. A
staunch critic of modernism, she disdained emerging artists such as
Russell Drysdale and William Dobell. She fell out of step with
Australian art and her last solo show was in 1947. Her works, which
portray an Australian pastoral ideal, are held in most major Australian
collections.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_Rix_Nicholas>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1604:

Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the religious text of Sikhism, was
installed at Harmandir Sahib.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Granth_Sahib>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 31: Indian Head eagle

The Indian Head eagle was an American ten-dollar gold piece, or eagle,
produced from 1907 until 1916, and then irregularly until 1933.
Beginning in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt proposed the
introduction of more artistic designs on US coins, prompting the Mint to
hire the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens to create them. Roosevelt chose
a design for the obverse of the eagle (pictured) that the sculptor had
meant to use for the cent, and for its reverse he selected a design
featuring a standing bald eagle, which had been developed for the
twenty-dollar piece designed by Saint-Gaudens. Following the sculptor's
death on August 3, 1907, Roosevelt insisted that the new eagle be
finished and struck that month, and new pieces were given to the
President on August 31. The omission of the motto "In God We Trust" on
the new coins caused public outrage, and prompted Congress to pass a
bill mandating its inclusion. The Indian Head eagle was struck regularly
until 1916, and then intermittently until President Franklin Roosevelt
directed the Mint to stop producing gold coins in 1933; many were later
melted down. Its termination ended the series of eagles struck for
circulation begun in 1795.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Head_eagle>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1813:

Peninsular War: At the Battle of San Marcial, the Spanish Army
of Galicia under Manuel Alberto Freire turned back Nicolas Soult's last
major offensive against Arthur Wellesley's allied army.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Marcial>
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 30: Clackline Bridge

Clackline Bridge is a road bridge in Clackline, Western Australia, 77
kilometres (48 mi) east of Perth, that carried Great Eastern Highway
until 2008. It is the only bridge in Western Australia to have spanned
both a waterway and railway, the Clackline Brook and the former Eastern
Railway alignment. The mainly timber bridge has a unique curved and
sloped design, due to the difficult topography and the route of the
former railway. The bridge was designed in 1934 to replace two dangerous
rail crossings and a rudimentary water crossing. Construction began in
January 1935, and the opening ceremony was held on 30 August 1935. The
bridge was still a safety hazard, with increasing severity and numbers
of accidents in the 1970s and 1980s. Planning for a highway bypass of
Clackline and the Clackline Bridge began in the 1990s, and was
constructed between January 2007 and February 2008. The local community
had been concerned that the historic bridge would be lost, but it
remains part of the local road network, and has been listed on both the
Northam Municipal Heritage Inventory and the Heritage Council of Western
Australia's Register of Heritage Places.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clackline_Bridge>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1799:

Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland: A squadron of the navy of
the Batavian Republic surrendered to the Royal Navy without a fight near
Wieringen.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlieter_Incident>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 29: 2007 Appalachian State vs. Michigan football game

The 2007 Appalachian State vs. Michigan football game was a regular
season college football game between the Appalachian State Mountaineers
and Michigan Wolverines. The Wolverines were ranked No. 5 in the upper-
tier Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), while the Mountaineers were ranked
No. 1 in the second-tier Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), of
which they were the defending champions. Games between FBS and FCS teams
typically result in lopsided victories for the FBS team, and the game
was not expected to be an exception. However, in an upset hailed as one
of the greatest in college football history, the Mountaineers won
34–32 (scoreboard pictured), blocking a potentially game-winning field
goal attempt by Michigan in the waning seconds to secure their win. The
Mountaineers became the first FCS team to defeat a ranked FBS team,
while the Wolverines became the first top-five team to drop out of the
polls as the result of a single game. The game received a large amount
of coverage in American sports media, and both teams went on to have
successful seasons, with Appalachian State winning the FCS championship
and Michigan winning a bowl game.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_Appalachian_State_vs._Michigan_football_game>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1526:

Ottoman–Hungarian Wars: Louis II, the last Jagiellonian king
of Hungary and Bohemia, died after his army was defeated by Ottoman
forces led by Suleiman the Magnificent at the Battle of Mohács.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Moh%C3%A1cs>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 28: Creek Turnpike

The Creek Turnpike is a 33.22-mile-long (53.46 km) freeway-standard
toll road that lies entirely in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The turnpike
forms a partial beltway around the south and east sides of Tulsa,
Oklahoma's second largest city. The western terminus is at the Turner
Turnpike in Sapulpa, while the northeastern terminus is at the Will
Rogers Turnpike in Fair Oaks; both ends of the Creek Turnpike connect
with Interstate 44 (I-44). Along the way, the highway passes through the
cities of Sapulpa, Jenks, Tulsa, and Broken Arrow, and the counties of
Creek, Tulsa, Wagoner and Rogers. The first section of the Creek
Turnpike, from US-75 in Jenks to US-64/US-169 in Tulsa, was first
authorized in 1987. Its construction was controversial. Homeowners along
the route of the highway formed a group called Tulsans Against Turnpikes
to fight the highway in both the courtroom and the media, and the
highway was also challenged on environmental grounds. Nevertheless, the
highway opened to traffic in the first half of 1992. Further extensions
to both the east and the west followed in later years after several
years of false starts under the administrations of two different
governors.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creek_Turnpike>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1830:

Tom Thumb (replica pictured), the first American-built steam
locomotive, engaged in an impromptu race against a horse-drawn car in
Maryland.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Thumb_(locomotive)>
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 27: ARA Rivadavia

ARA Rivadavia was an Argentine battleship, the lead ship of its class,
constructed during the South American dreadnought race. When the
Brazilian government placed an order for two powerful new
"dreadnought"-type warships in 1907, the Argentines moved quickly to
acquire their own. After an extended bidding process, contracts to build
Rivadavia and Moreno (its only sister ship) were given to the Fore River
Shipbuilding Company. Given the tense international climate that soon
broke out into the First World War, the Argentine government received
several offers for the ships. This dovetailed with a legislative
movement that aimed to sell the ships and devote the proceeds to
improving the country's educational system. These efforts were defeated,
and Rivadavia was commissioned into the Argentine Navy on 27 August
1914, one hundred years ago. Both Argentine dreadnoughts underwent
extensive refits in the United States in 1924–25, and saw no active
duty during the Second World War. Rivadavia's last cruise was in 1946.
The ship was sold for scrapping in 1957 and broken up two years later.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARA_Rivadavia>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1776:

British forces led by William Howe defeated the American
Continental Army under George Washington at the Battle of Long Island,
the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Long_Island>

1810:
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 26: Misterioso (Thelonious Monk album)

Misterioso is a live album by American jazz ensemble the Thelonious Monk
Quartet, released in 1958 by Riverside Records. Pianist and composer
Thelonious Monk (pictured) had overcome an extended period of career
difficulties by the time of his 1957 residency at the Five Spot Café in
New York City. He returned to the venue the following year for a second
residency and recorded Misterioso with drummer Roy Haynes, bassist Ahmed
Abdul-Malik, and tenor saxophonist Johnny Griffin. Misterioso and its
title track refer to Monk's reputation as an enigmatic, challenging
musician. The album features four of his earlier compositions, which
Monk reworked live. It was one of the first successful live recordings
of his music and was produced by Orrin Keepnews, who said that Monk
played more distinctly than on his studio albums in response to the
audience's enthusiasm. Music critics at the time complimented Monk's
performance, but were critical of Griffin, whose playing they felt was
out of place with the quartet. Later critics have viewed Griffin's
playing as a highlight. The album was remastered and reissued in 1989
and 2012 by Original Jazz Classics.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misterioso_(Thelonious_Monk_album)>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1071:

Byzantine–Seljuq Wars: Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan
captured Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV at the Battle of Manzikert.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Manzikert>

1346:
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 25: Francis Marrash

Francis Marrash (1836–1873) was a Syrian writer and poet of the Nahda
movement—the Arabic renaissance—and a physician. Most of his works
revolve around science, history and religion, analysed under an
epistemological light. He travelled through the Middle East and France
in his youth, and after some medical training and a year of practice in
his native Aleppo, during which he wrote several works, he enrolled in a
medical school in Paris. Declining health and growing blindness forced
his return to Aleppo, where he produced more literary works until his
early death. Middle Eastern historian Matti Moosa considered Marrash to
be the first truly cosmopolitan Arab intellectual and writer of modern
times. Marrash adhered to the principles of the French Revolution and
defended them in his own works, implicitly criticising Ottoman rule in
the Middle East. He was also influential in introducing French
romanticism in the Arab world, especially through his use of poetic
prose and prose poetry, of which his writings were the first examples in
modern Arabic literature. He has had a lasting influence on contemporary
Arab thought and on the Mahjari poets.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Marrash>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1580:

War of the Portuguese Succession: The army of the pretender to
the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, was routed in the
Battle of Alcântara, ending his short-lived reign.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Alc%C3%A2ntara_(1580)>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] August 24: The FP

The FP is a 2011 American independent comedy film written and directed
by brothers Brandon (pictured right) and Jason Trost (pictured left).
The film focuses on two gangs—the 248 and the 245—that are fighting
for control of Frazier Park (The FP). The gangs settle their disputes by
playing Beat-Beat Revelation, a video game similar to Dance Dance
Revolution. Gang member JTRO (Jason Trost) undergoes training to defeat
L Dubba E (Lee Valmassy), the leader of a rival gang. Jason Trost
conceived The FP when he was 16 years old, and developed it into a short
film. He was then encouraged to make a feature-length version. Ron
Trost—Brandon and Jason Trost's father—served as special effects
supervisor and executive producer of the film, and his property was the
primary filming location. The full-length version of The FP premiered at
South by Southwest on March 13, 2011, and received positive reviews.
After its screening at the Fantasia Festival on July 30 that year,
Drafthouse Films acquired the film for distribution. It had a limited
release and received mixed reviews, failing to recoup its production
budget.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_FP>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

79:

According to estimates based on the Codex Laurentianus Mediceus,
Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the towns of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and
Stabiae in Italy.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eruption_of_Mount_Vesuvius_in_79>

(Continue reading)


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