[Daily article] August 2: How Brown Saw the Baseball Game

How Brown Saw the Baseball Game is a 1907 American short comedy film
distributed by Siegmund Lubin's Lubin Manufacturing Company. The film
follows Mr. Brown, a baseball fan, who drinks several highball cocktails
before arriving at the ballpark. He has become so intoxicated that the
baseball game appears to him in reverse motion. During production, trick
photography was used to achieve this effect. The film received positive
reviews in a 1908 issue of The Moving Picture World, a film journal,
that regarded it as successful and "truly funny". The identities of the
film's cast and production crew are not known. Film historians have
noted similarities between the plot of How Brown Saw the Baseball Game
and the comedy film How the Office Boy Saw the Ball Game directed by
Edwin S. Porter, released the previous year.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_Brown_Saw_the_Baseball_Game>

Today's selected anniversaries:


English sea explorer Henry Hudson sailed into what is now known
as Hudson Bay, thinking he had made it through the Northwest Passage to
reach the Pacific Ocean.


The first United States Census was conducted, as mandated by
the United States Constitution to allocate Congressional seats and
electoral votes.
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[Daily article] August 1: Preparing for a Fancy Dress Ball

Preparing for a Fancy Dress Ball is an oil painting by English artist
William Etty. Although he was then known almost exclusively for history
paintings featuring nude figures, he was commissioned in 1833 by Welsh
Conservative politician Charles Williams-Wynn to paint a portrait of two
of his daughters. Charlotte, the eldest, is shown standing, helping the
seated Mary decorate her hair with a ribbon and a rose, both in lavish
Italian-style costume. Etty put a good deal of effort into the piece and
took much longer than usual to finish it, first exhibiting it at the
1835 Royal Academy Summer Exhibition. Generally well received, even by
critics usually hostile to Etty, it demonstrated that he was both
capable of high-quality work and deserving of patronage by the English
elite, and the success led to further commissions. It remained in the
collection of Mary Williams-Wynn's descendants and was not shown
publicly for 160 years, other than in an 1849 retrospective exhibition.
In 2009 it was acquired by the York Art Gallery, where it now forms part
of a major collection of Etty's work.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preparing_for_a_Fancy_Dress_Ball>

Today's selected anniversaries:


Upon the death of Justin I, Justinian the Great became the sole
ruler of the Byzantine Empire.


(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 31: AI Mk. IV radar

Airborne Interception radar, Mark IV, was the first successful air-to-
air radar system, used in Britain's Bristol Beaufighter heavy fighters
by early 1941 in the Second World War. Early development of the Mk. IV
was prompted by a 1936 memo from the inventor Henry Tizard to Robert
Watt, director of the radar research efforts, who agreed to allow
physicist Taffy Bowen to form a team to study the problem of air
interception. The team had a test bed system in flights later that year,
but progress was delayed for four years by emergency relocations, three
abandoned production designs, and Bowen's increasingly adversarial
relationship with Watt's replacement, Albert Percival Rowe. The Mk. IV
had many limitations, including displays that were difficult to
interpret, a maximum range that decreased with the aircraft's altitude,
and a minimum range that was barely close enough to allow the pilot to
see the target. Nevertheless, the Mk. IV played a role in the Royal Air
Force's increasingly effective response to The Blitz, the
Luftwaffe‍‍ '​‍s night bombing campaign. The Mk. VIII largely
relegated the Mk. IV to second-line duties by 1943.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AI_Mk._IV_radar>

Today's selected anniversaries:


John Komnenos the Fat briefly seized the throne of the
Byzantine Empire from Alexios III Angelos, but he was soon caught and

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[Daily article] July 30: Cley Marshes

Cley Marshes is a nature reserve on the North Sea coast of England just
outside the village of Cley next the Sea, Norfolk. A reserve since 1926,
it is the oldest of the reserves belonging to the Norfolk Wildlife
Trust. Cley Marshes protects an area of reed beds, freshwater marsh,
pools and wet meadows, and has been designated as a Site of Special
Scientific Interest due to the large flocks of birds it attracts. The
reserve is important for some scarce breeding species, such as pied
avocets on the islands, and western marsh harriers, Eurasian bitterns
and bearded reedlings in the reeds, and is a major migration stopoff and
wintering site. There are also several nationally or locally scarce
invertebrates and plants specialised for this coastal habitat. The
reserve has an environmentally friendly visitor centre and five bird
hides, and attracts large numbers of visitors, contributing
significantly to the economy of Cley village. Despite centuries of
embanking to reclaim land and protect the village, the marshes have been
flooded many times; the southward march of the coastal shingle bank and
encroachment by the sea make it inevitable that the reserve will
eventually be lost.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cley_Marshes>

Today's selected anniversaries:


Led by King Charles X Gustav, the armies of Sweden and
Brandenburg defeated the forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
near Warsaw.
(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 29: Eusèbe Jaojoby

Eusèbe Jaojoby (born 29 July 1955) is a composer and singer of salegy,
a musical style of northwestern Madagascar. As one of the originators of
salegy and its variants malessa and baoenjy, he is credited with
transforming the genre from an obscure regional musical tradition into
one of national and international popularity. In 1972 Jaojoby started
performing with bands that were experimentally blending American soul
and funk with northwestern Malagasy musical traditions. He produced four
singles with The Players before the band broke up in 1979. He rose to
national prominence with his 1988 hit "Samy Mandeha Samy Mitady",
recorded his first full-length album in 1992, and went on to release
eight more full-length albums and tour extensively along with his wife
and adult children. He was Madagascar's Artist of the Year in 1998 and
1999 and the UN Population Fund's Goodwill Ambassador in 1999.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eus%C3%A8be_Jaojoby>

Today's selected anniversaries:


The Siege of Damascus ended in a decisive crusader defeat,
leading to the disintegration of the Second Crusade.


The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, commemorating those who fought
and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars,
was formally inaugurated.
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[Daily article] July 28: Operation Camargue

Operation Camargue (1953) was one of the largest operations by the
French Far East Expeditionary Corps and the Vietnamese National Army in
the First Indochina War. French armored platoons, airborne units and
troops, delivered by landing craft to the coast of modern-day central
Vietnam, attempted to sweep forces of the communist Viet Minh from the
critical Route One. On 28 July the first wave reached an inland canal
without major incident, but French armored forces began to suffer a
series of ambushes as they passed through small villages. Reinforced by
paratroopers, the French and their Vietnamese allies tried to tighten a
net around the defending Viet Minh guerillas, but most escaped, along
with their arms caches. The French concluded that ensnaring operations
were impossible in the dense jungle, which slowed down troops so that
enemy forces could anticipate their movements, and they withdrew from
the operation by late summer. Viet Minh Regiment 95 re-infiltrated Route
One and resumed ambushes of French convoys, retrieving weapons caches
missed by the French forces. The regiment continued to operate in the
area as late as 1962, fighting the South Vietnamese Army.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Camargue>

Today's selected anniversaries:


Peruvian War of Independence: Argentine general José de San
Martín declared the independence of Peru from Spain.

(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 27: Myotis escalerai


Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Myotis_escalerai_Cabrera.png>

Today's selected anniversaries:


A Royal Charter was granted to the Bank of England as the
English Government's banker.


The National Convention ordered the arrest and execution of
Reign of Terror leader Maximilien Robespierre after he encouraged the
execution of more than 17,000 "enemies of the French Revolution".


University of Toronto researchers led by Frederick Banting
proved that the hormone insulin regulates blood sugar.


Bugs Bunny debuted in the animated cartoon A Wild Hare.
(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 26: 2013 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2013 Atlantic hurricane season was the first since 1968 with no
hurricanes of Category 2 or higher. The first storm of the season,
Tropical Storm Andrea, developed on June 5, and the last, unnamed,
dissipated on December 7. Humberto and Ingrid were the only two
hurricanes, the lowest seasonal total since 1982. Andrea killed four
people after making landfall in Florida and moving up the U.S. East
Coast. In early July, Tropical Storm Chantal moved through the Leeward
Islands, causing one fatality, but minimal damage overall. Tropical
storms Dorian and Erin and Hurricane Humberto brought only squally
weather to the Cape Verde Islands. Mexico, where Hurricane Ingrid,
Tropical Depression Eight, and tropical storms Barry and Fernand all
made landfall, was the hardest hit; Ingrid alone caused at least
23 deaths and $1.5 billion worth of damage. In early October, Tropical
Storm Karen brought showers and gusty winds to the central U.S. Gulf
Coast. All major forecasting agencies had predicted an above-average
season, but an unexpected weakening of the Gulf Stream and other
thermohaline currents prolonged the spring weather pattern over the
Atlantic Ocean, suppressing tropical storm formation.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2013_Atlantic_hurricane_season>

Today's selected anniversaries:


Bulgarian forces led by Khan Krum defeated the Byzantines at the
Battle of Pliska, annihilating almost the whole army and killing
Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I.
(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 25: Elliott Fitch Shepard

Elliott Fitch Shepard (1833–1893) was a New York lawyer, the owner of
the Mail and Express newspaper, and a founder of three banks as well as
the New York State Bar Association. He was born in Jamestown, New York,
one of three sons of the president of a banknote-engraving company.
During the American Civil War, Shepard earned the rank of colonel and
was a Union Army recruiter. After attending the City University of New
York, he practiced law for about 25 years. One of his residences,
Woodlea, and the church he founded nearby, Scarborough Presbyterian, are
contributing properties in the historic district of Scarborough-on-
Hudson in the village of Briarcliff Manor. Woodlea, one of the largest
privately owned houses in the United States at the time, is now part of
Sleepy Hollow Country Club. Shepard was married to Margaret Louisa
Vanderbilt, granddaughter of philanthropist, business magnate, and
family patriarch Cornelius Vanderbilt. Deeply religious, Shepard became
the controlling stockholder of the Fifth Avenue Stage Company so he
could force it to close on Sundays.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliott_Fitch_Shepard>

Today's selected anniversaries:


Prince Afonso Henriques led Portuguese troops to victory over
the Almoravid Moors at the Battle of Ourique.


(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 24: M-28 Business (Ishpeming–Negaunee, Michigan)

Business M-28 is a 4.8-mile (7.7 km) state trunkline highway in the
U.S. state of Michigan serving as a business route for U.S. Highway 41
and M-28. It runs through the downtown districts of the historic iron-
mining communities Ishpeming and Negaunee. The trunkline was originally
a section of these roads until a northerly bypass was built in 1937.
M-35 also ran through downtown Negaunee along a section of the highway
until the 1960s. A rerouting in 1999 moved the trunkline designation
along Lakeshore Drive in Ishpeming, and a streetscape project rebuilt
the road in Negaunee in 2005. In Negaunee, the highway passes Jackson
Park, where iron ore was first discovered in what became the Marquette
Iron Range. The nearby Jackson Mine was added to the National Register
of Historic Places in 1971. Between 1850 and 1900, half the nation's
supply of iron ore came from this region.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-28_Business_(Ishpeming%E2%80%93Negaunee,_Michigan)>

Today's selected anniversaries:


Forces of Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles, and Alexander
Stewart, Earl of Mar, fought at the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie,


The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and the Russian Empire signed the
Treaty of Georgievsk, establishing Georgia as a protectorate of Russia.
(Continue reading)


[Daily article] July 23: Capcom Five

The Capcom Five is a set of five video games released between 2003 and
2005 by Capcom for the Nintendo GameCube, all overseen by Resident Evil
creator Shinji Mikami. Nintendo and Capcom had enjoyed a close
relationship during the Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Nintendo
eras, and the announcement of the five new games was initially seen as
an important show of third-party developer support for the GameCube.
P.N.03, a futuristic third-person shooter, Viewtiful Joe, a side-
scrolling action-platformer, Dead Phoenix, a shoot 'em up, and Resident
Evil 4, a survival horror third-person shooter, were developed by
Capcom's Production Studio 4; Killer7, an action-adventure game with
first-person shooter elements, was developed by Grasshopper Manufacture.
Viewtiful Joe and Killer7 sold modestly, the former in spite of critical
acclaim and the latter owing to polarized reviews, but Killer7 gained a
significant cult following, effectively launching the career of creator
Suda51. Resident Evil 4 was the runaway success of the five, though its
GameCube sales were undercut by the announcement of a Sony PlayStation 2
version, in an early sign of Nintendo's failure to attract and hold
third-party support during the GameCube era.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capcom_Five>

Today's selected anniversaries:


William Austin Burt was awarded a patent for the typographer,
the first practical typewriting machine.

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