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[Daily article] September 30: Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI

Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI is a 1984 Indonesian docudrama written and
directed by Arifin C. Noer, produced by G. Dwipayana, and starring
Amoroso Katamsi, Umar Kayam, and Syubah Asa. Produced over a period of
two years with a budget of Rp. 800 million, the film was sponsored by
the New Order government under Suharto (pictured). Based on Nugroho
Notosusanto's history of the 30 September Movement coup in 1965, It
depicts the kidnapping and killings of six generals by the Communist
Party of Indonesia and Air Force, as well as Suharto's destruction of
the movement. It closes with an urging for the Indonesian populace to
fight against all forms of communism. The film was a commercial and
critical success: nominated for seven awards at the 1984 Indonesian Film
Festival (winning one), it reached record audience numbers – although
many viewings were mandatory. It was used as a propaganda vehicle by the
New Order government until its collapse, televised annually on 30
September. Since the fall of Suharto in 1998, such use of the film has
become less common, and although the film's artistic aspects remain well
received, its misrepresentation of history has been criticised.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pengkhianatan_G30S/PKI>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

737:

Muslim conquest of Transoxiana: Turgesh tribes attacked the
exposed Umayyad baggage train, which had been sent ahead of the main
force, and captured it.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Baggage>

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[Daily article] September 29: 1940 Brocklesby mid-air collision

On 29 September 1940, a mid-air collision occurred over Brocklesby, New
South Wales, Australia. Two Avro Ansons of No. 2 Service Flying
Training School RAAF were on a cross-country navigational exercise and
made a banking turn at an altitude of 1,000 feet (300 metres). Leading
Aircraftman Leonard Fuller lost sight of the aircraft below him, and the
pair collided, locking together and knocking out the upper Anson's
engines. The lower Anson's turret wedged into the other's port wing
root, its fin and rudder balancing the upper aircraft's port tailplane.
Both navigators and the pilot of the lower Anson bailed out. Fuller
found that he was able to control the interlocked aircraft using his
ailerons and flaps, together with the still-functioning engines on the
machine underneath. After flying for five miles (eight kilometres), he
made an emergency landing in a paddock. All four crewmen survived the
incident, and the upper Anson was repaired and returned to flight
service. The freak accident garnered news coverage around the world and,
according to the Greater Hume Shire Council, it remains Brocklesby's
"main claim to fame".

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1940_Brocklesby_mid-air_collision>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1774:

The publication of The Sorrows of Young Werther raised the 24
-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to international fame.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sorrows_of_Young_Werther>

1923:
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[Daily article] September 28: Derek Jeter

Derek Jeter (born 1974) is an American baseball shortstop who is playing
in his 20th and final season in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New
York Yankees. A five-time World Series champion, Jeter is regarded as a
central figure of the Yankees' success of the late 1990s and early 2000s
due to his hitting, baserunning, and fielding abilities, and his
leadership as team captain since 2003. He is the Yankees' all-time
career leader in hits (3,461), games played (2,744), stolen bases (358),
and at bats (11,186). His accolades include fourteen All-Star
selections, five Gold Glove Awards, five Silver Slugger Awards, two Hank
Aaron Awards, and a Roberto Clemente Award. Jeter is the all-time MLB
leader in hits by a shortstop, and the 28th player to reach 3,000 hits.
He holds many postseason records, earning him the nicknames "Captain
Clutch" and "Mr. November". He has been one of the most heavily marketed
athletes of his generation, and his personal life and relationships with
celebrities have drawn media attention throughout his career. Teammates
and opponents alike regard Jeter as a consummate professional and one of
the best players of his generation.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derek_Jeter>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

48 BC:

Pompey the Great was assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of
Egypt after landing in Egypt following a decisive defeat by Julius
Caesar at the Battle of Pharsalus.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompey>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] September 27: SS Arctic disaster

Only 88 people survived the sinking of the SS Arctic on September 27,
1854, out of more than 400 on board. The paddle steamer SS Arctic
(pictured), bound for New York, sank off the coast of Newfoundland. When
Captain Luce ordered the lifeboats launched, a breakdown in discipline
saw the boats swamped by members of the crew and the more able-bodied
male passengers; most of the rest went down with the ship, four hours
after the collision. All the women and children on board perished. Two
of the six lifeboats launched from Arctic reached Newfoundland, and
another was picked up by a passing steamer, which also rescued a few
survivors from improvised rafts. Among these was Luce, who had regained
the surface after initially going down with the ship. The other three
lifeboats disappeared without trace. News of Arctic's loss did not reach
New York until two weeks after the sinking, when public sorrow quickly
turned to anger at the perceived cowardice of the crew. There was no
investigation into the disaster, and no one was held legally
responsible. Luce, who was generally exonerated from blame, retired from
the sea; some of the surviving crew chose not to return to the US.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Arctic_disaster>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1605 Polish–Swedish War: The Battle of Kircholm ended in the decisive
victory of Polish–Lithuanian forces, and is remembered as one of the
greatest triumphs of Commonwealth cavalry.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kircholm>

1825:

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[Daily article] September 26: School Rumble

School Rumble is a Japanese shōnen manga series written and illustrated
by Jin Kobayashi. First serialized in 345 chapters in Weekly Shōnen
Magazine between 2002 and 2008, it is a romance comedy centering on
relationships between three Japanese high school students. The series
often discards realism in favor of comedic effect. Its popularity
resulted in television adaptations, video games, novels and guidebooks.
It has also been translated into English and other languages. The manga
was well received by Japanese-language readers; the North American
English translations were less popular, and ranked 145th for overall
manga series sales in 2008. Some critics of the English-language
translation praised Kobayashi for his art style and overall use of
humor, while others disliked some of the jokes and repetitive plot. The
anime adaptation sold well in Japan and was praised by Kobayashi
and—for the English-language translation—critics. The decision by
Media Factory to aggressively pursue its intellectual property rights
for School Rumble is believed by proponents of fansubs to have had a
negative impact on the franchise's release and sales in the North
American market.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_Rumble>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1493:

Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the
last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish
colonization of the Americas.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dudum_siquidem>
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[Daily article] September 25: Mozambican War of Independence

The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between
Portugal and the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front. It
began on September 25, 1964, and ended with a cease fire on September 8,
1974. The war erupted from unrest and frustration amongst many
indigenous Mozambican populations, who perceived foreign rule to be a
form of exploitation and resented Portugal's policies towards indigenous
people. As successful self-determination movements spread throughout
Africa after World War II, many Mozambicans became progressively
nationalistic in outlook. For the other side, many enculturated
indigenous Africans who were fully integrated into the social
organization of Portuguese Mozambique reacted to the independentist
claims with discomfort and suspicion. The ethnic Portuguese of the
territory, including most of the ruling authorities, responded with
increased military presence and fast-paced development projects. The
Portuguese regular army held the upper hand during the conflict
(propaganda pictured) but Mozambique achieved independence in 1975 after
the Carnation Revolution in Portugal, ending 470 years of Portuguese
colonial rule in the East African region.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozambican_War_of_Independence>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

762:

Led by Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, the Hasanid branch of the
Alids began the Alid Revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alid_Revolt_(762%E2%80%9363)>

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[Daily article] September 24: Transandinomys bolivaris

Transandinomys bolivaris, also known as the long-whiskered rice rat, is
a rodent in the genus Transandinomys. It is found in humid forest from
northeastern Honduras to western Ecuador, up to 1800 m (5900 ft) above
sea level. Since it was first described in 1901 from Ecuador, six
scientific names have been introduced for it, but their common identity
was not documented until 1998 and the species had a number of names
until it was moved to the new genus Transandinomys in 2006. It is a
medium-sized rice rat and has very long vibrissae (whiskers)—those
above the eyes are up to 50 mm (2.0 in) long, making it
distinguishable from other similarly sized rice rats. The fur, which is
soft and dense, is usually dark brown above and light gray below; it is
darker in juveniles. The feet are long and the tail is about as long as
the head and body. The skull (pictured from above) is narrow and
relatively long, and has a broad interorbital region (between the eyes).
The species generally lives on the ground, but some young animals have
been taken in vegetation, up to 1.5 m (5 ft) above the ground.
Although it is rare, its conservation status is thought to be secure.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transandinomys_bolivaris>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1789:

The First United States Congress passed the Judiciary Act of
1789, establishing the U.S. federal judiciary and setting the number of
Supreme Court Justices.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judiciary_Act_of_1789>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] September 23: Fluorine

Fluorine is an extremely reactive chemical element with atomic number 9
(pictured in liquid form at cryogenic temperatures). A highly toxic pale
yellow gas at standard conditions, it was first described in 1529 as its
principal source fluorite, a mineral added as a flux for smelting, and
named after the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow". As the lightest halogen
and most electronegative element, it is difficult to separate from its
compounds, and several early experimenters died or were injured. The
process employed for its modern production—low-temperature
electrolysis—remains the same as that used by Henri Moissan in 1886 to
achieve its first isolation. The high costs of refining fluorine gas
lead most commercial uses, such as aluminium refining, insulation and
refrigeration, to use its compounds; uranium enrichment is the free
element's largest application. Fluorine is a part of some
pharmaceuticals and appears as the fluoride ion in toothpaste, but has
no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants possess fluorine-
containing poisons to deter herbivores. Fluorocarbon gases are usually
potent greenhouse gases and organofluorine compounds persist in the
environment.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorine>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1123:

Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agreed to the
Concordat of Worms to put an end to the Investiture Controversy.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concordat_of_Worms>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] September 22: System Shock

System Shock is a 1994 first-person action role-playing video game
developed by Looking Glass Technologies and published by Origin Systems.
It was directed by Doug Church with Warren Spector (pictured) serving as
producer. The game is set aboard a space station in a cyberpunk vision
of the year 2072. Assuming the role of a nameless hacker, the player
attempts to hinder the plans of a malevolent artificial intelligence
called SHODAN. System Shock's 3D engine, physics simulation and complex
gameplay have been cited as both innovative and influential. The
developers sought to build on the emergent gameplay and immersive
environments of their previous games, Ultima Underworld: The Stygian
Abyss and Ultima Underworld II: Labyrinth of Worlds, by streamlining
their mechanics into a more "integrated whole". Critics praised System
Shock and hailed it as a major breakthrough in its genre. It was later
placed on multiple hall of fame lists. The game was a moderate
commercial success, with sales exceeding 170,000 copies; but Looking
Glass ultimately lost money on the project. A sequel, System Shock 2,
was released by Looking Glass Studios and off-shoot developer Irrational
Games in 1999.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Shock>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1586:

Eighty Years' War: Spanish forces were victorious against a
combined Anglo-Dutch army in the Battle of Zutphen.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Zutphen>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] September 21: Gustav Holst

Gustav Holst (1874–1934) was an English composer, arranger and
teacher, best known for his orchestral suite The Planets. He had
originally hoped to become a pianist, but was prevented by neuritis in
his right arm. Unable to support himself as a composer, he played the
trombone professionally and later became a teacher. He was musical
director at Morley College from 1907 until 1924, and pioneered music
education for women at St Paul's Girls' School, where he taught from
1905 until his death. He also founded a series of annual Whitsun music
festivals, which ran from 1916 for the remainder of his life. As a
composer, it was not until the international success of The Planets in
the years immediately after the First World War that he became a well-
known figure. In his later years his style of composition struck many as
too austere, and his brief popularity declined. Nevertheless, he was a
significant influence on a number of younger English composers,
including Michael Tippett and Benjamin Britten. Apart from The Planets
and a handful of other works, his music was generally neglected until
the 1980s, since when recordings of much of his output have been
available.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Holst>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1860:

Second Opium War: Anglo-French forces earned a decisive victory
against Qing dynasty troops in the Battle of Palikao, allowing them to
capture Beijing.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Palikao>
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] September 20: Great North of Scotland Railway

The Great North of Scotland Railway was one of the smaller Scottish
railways operating in the far north-east of the country. Formed in 1845,
it carried its first passengers from Kittybrewster, in Aberdeen, to
Huntly on 20 September 1854. An early expansion was followed by a period
of forced economy, but in the 1880s the railway was refurbished, express
services began to run, and a suburban service in Aberdeen started. The
railway operated its main line between Aberdeen and Keith and two routes
west to Elgin; connections could be made at Keith and Elgin for services
to Inverness. Its eventual area encompassed the counties of
Aberdeenshire, Banffshire and Moray, with short lengths of line in
Inverness-shire and Kincardineshire. Fish from the North Sea ports and
whisky from Speyside became important goods traffic. The Royal Family
used the Deeside Line for travel to and from Balmoral Castle. The
railway became the Northern Scottish area of the London and North
Eastern Railway in 1923, passing on 333 1⁄2 miles (536.7 km) of line
and 122 steam locomotives (including No. 49 Gordon Highlander,
pictured). Only its main line remains, as part of the Aberdeen to
Inverness Line.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_North_of_Scotland_Railway>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1066:

King Harald III of Norway and Tostig Godwinson, his English
ally, fought and defeated the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar in the
Battle of Fulford near York, England.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fulford>
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Gmane