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[Daily article] November 26: The World Is Not Enough (song)

"The World Is Not Enough" is the theme song of the 1999 James Bond film
of the same name, performed by alternative rock group Garbage (pictured
in 2012). The song was written by composer David Arnold, who also scored
the film, and lyricist Don Black, previously responsible for four other
Bond songs. "The World Is Not Enough" was composed in the traditional
style of the series' title themes contrasting with the post-modern
production technique and genre-hopping sound that Garbage had
established on their first two albums. Garbage recorded the majority of
"The World Is Not Enough" while touring Europe, telephoning Arnold as he
recorded the orchestral backing in London before travelling to England
themselves. Afterwards the band finished production of the song in
Canada. The lyrics reflect the point of view of the film's antagonist
Elektra King, with themes of world domination and seduction. The song
and accompanying soundtrack were released by Radioactive Records as the
film premiered around the world at the end of November 1999. Upon
release, "The World Is Not Enough" was widely acclaimed by reviewers,
and reached the top forty of ten singles charts.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_Is_Not_Enough_(song)>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

43 BC:

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and
Mark Antony formed the Second Triumvirate alliance.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Triumvirate>

1842:
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[Daily article] November 25: Biscayne National Park

Biscayne National Park is a U.S. National Park in southern Florida,
south of Miami, that preserves Biscayne Bay and its offshore barrier
reefs (pictured). Ninety-five percent of the park is water, accessible
only by boat. It covers 172,971 acres (69,999 ha) and includes Elliott
Key, the first of the true Florida Keys. The park protects four
ecosystems (mangrove swamp, shallow waters, coral limestone keys and the
Florida Reef), providing a nursery for larval and juvenile fish,
molluscs and crustaceans, and nesting grounds for endangered sea
turtles. Sixteen endangered species including Schaus' swallowtail
butterflies, smalltooth sawfish, manatees, and green and hawksbill sea
turtles may be observed in the park. The people of the Glades culture
inhabited the region about 10,000 years ago before rising sea levels
filled the bay. The Tequesta people occupied the area from about
4,000 BC to the 16th century, when the Spanish took possession of
Florida. Following the Cuban Revolution, Elliott Key was used as a
training ground for infiltrators into Castro's Cuba by the CIA and Cuban
exile groups.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biscayne_National_Park>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1034:

After Malcolm II of Scotland died at Glamis, Duncan, the son of
his second daughter, instead of Macbeth, the son of his eldest daughter,
inherited the throne to become the King of Scots.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth,_King_of_Scotland>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 24: Haflinger

The Haflinger is a horse breed developed in Austria and northern Italy
during the late 19th century. Relatively small and chestnut in color,
they were developed for use in mountainous terrain and are known for
their hardiness. The breed traces its ancestry to the Middle Ages, and
their current conformation and appearance come from infusions of
bloodlines from Arabian and various European breeds into the original
native Tyrolean ponies. All Haflingers can trace their lineage to a
foundation sire born in 1874. The two World Wars and the Great
Depression had a detrimental effect on the breed. In the postwar era the
Haflinger was indiscriminately crossed with other breeds, but from 1946
breeders focused on producing purebred Haflingers. Interest in the breed
increased in other countries, and numbers grew. In 2003 a Haflinger
became the first horse to be cloned, resulting in a filly named
Prometea. Haflingers have many uses, including light draft, harness
work, and various under-saddle disciplines. They are also used by the
Austrian and German armies in rough terrain. The World Haflinger
Federation, a confederation of 22 national registries, controls breed
standards.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haflinger>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1642:

A Dutch expedition led by Abel Tasman reached present-day
Tasmania, Australia.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abel_Tasman>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 23: Franklin Pierce

Franklin Pierce (1804–1869) was the 14th President of the United
States (1853–57), whose inability to calm tensions over slavery kept
the country on the path to the Civil War. A northern Democrat from New
Hampshire, Pierce served in the U.S. House of Representatives and the
Senate and took part in the Mexican–American War as a brigadier
general before becoming the Democrats' compromise candidate in the 1852
presidential election. He saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental
threat to the unity of the nation. He was a Young America expansionist
who signed the Gadsden Purchase of land from Mexico and led a failed
attempt to acquire Cuba from Spain. His polarizing actions in signing
the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act failed to
stem intersectional conflict. Although Pierce expected to be renominated
by the Democrats, he was abandoned by his party and failed in his bid to
be re-elected. His wife Jane suffered from illness and depression for
much of her life, and all of their children died young. Pierce, a heavy
drinker for much of his life, died of cirrhosis of the liver. Today he
is widely regarded as one of the worst presidents in U.S. history.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1499:

Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to the English throne during the
reign of King Henry VII, was hanged after reportedly attempting to
escape from the Tower of London.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perkin_Warbeck>

(Continue reading)

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November 22: History of the National Hockey League (1917–42)

The early history of the National Hockey League (NHL) began in 1917 when
it was founded by a majority of the franchises in the National Hockey
Association (the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators
and Quebec Bulldogs). The NHL's first quarter-century saw the league
compete against two rival major leagues, the Pacific Coast Hockey
Association and Western Canada Hockey League, for players and the
Stanley Cup. The NHL first expanded into the United States in 1924 with
the founding of the Boston Bruins, and by 1926 consisted of ten teams in
Ontario, Quebec, the Great Lakes region, and the Northeastern United
States. At the same time, the NHL emerged as the only major league and
the sole competitor for the Stanley Cup. Numerous innovations to the
rules and equipment were put forward as the NHL sought to improve the
flow of the game and make the sport more fan-friendly. Foster Hewitt's
radio broadcasts were heard coast-to-coast across Canada starting in
1933. The Great Depression and World War II reduced the league to six
teams by 1942, known as the "Original Six".

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_National_Hockey_League_(1917%E2%80%9342)>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1718:

The pirate Blackbeard was killed in battle by a boarding party
of British sailors off the coast of North Carolina, ending his reign of
terror in the Caribbean.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackbeard>

1812:
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 21: Sega 32X

The Sega 32X is an add-on for the Sega Genesis video game console. It
was designed to expand the power of the Genesis and serve as a
transitional console into the 32-bit era until the release of the Sega
Saturn. Unveiled at June 1994's Consumer Electronics Show, Sega
presented the 32X as a low-cost option for playing 32-bit games.
Developed in response to the Atari Jaguar and concerns that the Saturn
would not be ready by the end of 1994, the product was originally
conceived as an entirely new console, but was converted into an add-on
to the existing Genesis and made more powerful. To meet the release date
of November 1994, development of the new system and its games were
rushed. Ultimately, the console failed to attract third-party video game
developers and sufficient consumers due to the announcement of the Sega
Saturn's simultaneous release in Japan. By the end of 1994, the 32X had
sold 665,000 units; it was discontinued in 1996. Initial reception was
positive, highlighting the low price and power expansion to the Genesis,
but later reviews were mostly negative because of its shallow game
library, poor market timing and the resulting market fragmentation for
the Genesis.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_32X>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1386:

Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian
capital of Tbilisi, forcing King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timur%27s_invasions_of_Georgia>

(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 20: Vijayanagara literature in Kannada

Vijayanagara literature in Kannada is the body of literature composed in
the Kannada language of South India during the Vijayanagar Empire
(14th–16th centuries). The Vijayanagara empire was established in 1336
by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I. The empire is named after
its capital city Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround modern Hampi, now a
World Heritage Site in Karnataka (Virupaksha Temple pictured). Kannada
literature during this period consisted of writings relating to the
socio-religious developments of the Veerashaiva and Vaishnava faiths,
and to a lesser extent to that of Jainism. Authors included poets,
scholars, and members of the royal family, their ministers, army
commanders of rank, and nobility. Writers popularised use of the native
metres: shatpadi (six-line verse), sangatya (compositions meant to be
sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument), and tripadi (three-
line verse). The development of Veerashaiva literature was at its peak
during the reign of King Deva Raya II, the best-known of the Sangama
Dynasty rulers. The rule of King Krishnadeva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty
and his successors was a high point in Vaishnava literature.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vijayanagara_literature_in_Kannada>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

284:

Diocletian (bust pictured) became Roman emperor, eventually
establishing reforms that ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocletian>

1739:
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 19: Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar

The Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar was a fifty-cent piece struck
intermittently by the United States Bureau of the Mint between 1926 and
1939. The coin was designed by Laura Gardin Fraser and James Earle
Fraser, and honors those who traveled the Oregon Trail and settled the
Pacific Coast of the United States. Ohio-born Ezra Meeker had traveled
the Trail with his family in 1852 and spent the final two decades of his
long life publicizing the Trail. In 1926, at age 95, he appeared before
a Senate committee, requesting that the government issue a commemorative
coin to raise money for markers to show where the Trail had been. The
many varieties produced after Meeker's death in 1928 came to be
considered ripoffs, and in 1939 Congress ended the series. The Oregon
Trail Memorial Association, distributor of the coin, had difficulty in
selling them, and they remained available from the OTMA's successor
organization as late as 1953. Just over 260,000 of the 6,000,000
authorized coins were struck, of which about 60,000 were melted. The US
commemorative coin struck over the longest period, the Oregon Trail
Memorial half dollar has been widely praised for its design.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_Trail_Memorial_half_dollar>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1493:

Christopher Columbus became the first European to land on
Puerto Rico, naming it San Juan Bautista after John the Baptist.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto_Rico>

1816:
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[Daily article] November 18: Siege of Godesberg

The Siege of Godesberg, 18 November – 17 December 1583, was the first
major siege of the Cologne War (1583–89). A formidable 13th-century
fortress, the Godesburg (pictured c. 1500), sat on top of the
Godesberg mountain, towering over the Rhine valley. It commanded the
roads leading to Bonn, the Elector of Cologne's capital city, and
Cologne, the region's economic powerhouse. By the mid-16th century, the
Godesburg was considered nearly impregnable and had become a symbol of
the dual power of the Prince-electors and Archbishops of Cologne.
Bavarian and mercenary soldiers surrounded the mountain and the village
then of the same name, now Bad Godesberg, at its foot. The Godesburg
resisted a lengthy cannonade by the attacking army; finally, sappers
tunneled into the the mountain and blew up a significant part of the
fortifications. This killed many of the defenders, but the remainder
offered staunch resistance and the Bavarians had to enter the castle's
inner courtyard through the latrine system to succeed. The Godesburg's
commander negotiated safe passage for himself, his wife and his
lieutenant. The others who were left in the keep—men, women and
children—were killed.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Godesberg>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1812:

Napoleonic Wars: During Napoleon's invasion of Russia, Marshal
Michel Ney's leadership in the Battle of Krasnoi earned him the nickname
"the bravest of the brave" despite the overwhelming French defeat.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Krasnoi>
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 17: Not My Life

Not My Life is a 2011 American independent documentary film about human
trafficking and contemporary slavery. The film was written, produced,
and directed by Robert Bilheimer (pictured in Senegal during filming),
who had been asked to make the film by Antonio Maria Costa, executive
director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Not My Life
addresses many forms of slavery, including the military use of children
in Uganda, involuntary servitude in the United States, forced begging
and garbage picking in India, sex trafficking in Europe and Southeast
Asia, and other kinds of child abuse. Fifty people are interviewed in
the film, including Don Brewster of Agape International Missions, who
says that all of the girls they have rescued from child sex tourism in
Cambodia identify Americans as the clients who were the most abusive to
them. The film was dedicated to Richard Young, its cinematographer and
co-director, after he died in December 2010. It had its premiere the
following month at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New
York City. Not My Life was named Best World Documentary at the 2012
Harlem International Film Festival.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Not_My_Life>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1292:

John Balliol was chosen to be King of Scots over Robert de
Brus.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Balliol>

1839:
(Continue reading)

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[Daily article] November 16: Hurricane Claudette (2003)

Hurricane Claudette was the third tropical storm and first hurricane of
the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. A fairly long-lived July Atlantic
hurricane, Claudette began as a tropical wave in the eastern Caribbean.
It moved quickly westward, brushing past the Yucatán Peninsula before
moving northwestward through the Gulf of Mexico. Claudette remained a
tropical storm until just before making landfall in Port O'Connor,
Texas, when it quickly strengthened to a strong Category 1 hurricane.
Forecasting its path and intensity was uncertain, resulting in
widespread and often unnecessary preparations along its path. Claudette
was the first hurricane to make landfall in July in the United States
since Hurricane Danny in the 1997 season. The hurricane caused one death
and moderate damage in Texas, mostly from strong winds, as well as
extensive beach erosion. Because of the damage, President George W. Bush
declared portions of South Texas as a Federal Disaster Area, allowing
the affected citizens to apply for aid. Claudette also caused
significant rainfall and minor damage in the Mexican state of Quintana
Roo, as well as minor damage on Saint Lucia.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Claudette_(2003)>

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Today's selected anniversaries:

1776:

American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units captured
Fort Washington from the Patriots.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Washington>

1885:
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