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Casualties of the conflict in Iraq since 2003 (beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and continuing with the ensuing 2003 occupation of Iraq
coalition presence as well as the activities of the various armed
groups operating in the country) have come in many forms, and the
accuracy of the information available on different types of casualties
The table below summarizes the Iraq War casualty surveys. See the rest of the article for more detailed info.
For troops in the U.S.-led multinational coalition, the death toll
is carefully tracked and updated daily, and the names and photographs
of those killed in action as well as in accidents have been published
widely. Regarding the Iraqis, however, information on both military and
civilian casualties is both less accurate and less reliable. Given the
political significance of these figures and the varied agendas of all
parties, no source can be considered free of bias. Estimates of
casualty levels are available from reporters on the scene, from
officials of involved organizations, and from groups that summarize
information on incidents reported in the news media.
The word "casualties"
in its most general sense includes the injured as well as the dead.
Accounts of the number of coalition wounded vary widely, partly because
it is not obvious what should be counted: should only those injuries
serious enough to put a soldier out of commission be included? Do
illnesses or injuries caused by accidents count, or should the focus be
restricted to wounds caused by hostile engagement? Sources using
different definitions may arrive at very different numbers, and
sometimes the precise definition is not clearly specified. As for the
Iraqis, where even the death toll has only been very roughly estimated,
it appears that no one has attempted to count the wounded.
Summary of casualties of the Iraq War.
Possible estimates on the number of people killed in the invasion and occupation of Iraq vary widely, and are highly disputed. Estimates of casualties below include both the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the following Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present.
 Iraqi deaths
Iraqi Health Ministry casualty survey for the World Health Organization. In January 2008 the Iraqi health minister, Dr Salih Mahdi Motlab Al-Hasanawi,
reported the results of the "Iraq Family Health Survey" of 9,345
households across Iraq which was carried out in 2006 and 2007. It
estimated 151,000 violence-related Iraqi deaths (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) from March 2003 through June 2006. Employees of the Iraqi Health Ministry carried out the survey. The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll conducted August 12-19, 2007 estimated 1,033,000
violent deaths due to the Iraq War. The range given was 946,000 to
1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately
2000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household
(living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq War. 22% of the
respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that
"48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9%
from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from
The Iraq Body Count (IBC) figure of 80,419 to 87,834 civilian deaths reported in English-language media (including Arabic media translated into English) up to 10 January 2008
includes civilian deaths due to coalition and insurgent military
action, sectarian violence and increased criminal violence. The IBC
site states: "it should be noted that many deaths will likely go
unreported or unrecorded by officials and media."
For the 4th year of the war between 20 March 2006 and 16 March 2007 the
Iraq Body Count reported approximately 26,540 civilian deaths.
The United Nations reported that 34,452 violent deaths occurred in 2006, based on data from morgues, hospitals, and municipal authorities across Iraq.
The Lancet study's figure of 654,965 excess deaths through the end of June 2006
is based on household survey data. The estimate is for all excess
violent and nonviolent deaths. That also includes those due to
increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare,
etc.. 601,027 deaths (range of 426,369 to 793,663 using a 95% confidence interval)
were estimated to be due to violence. 31% of those were attributed to
the Coalition, 24% to others, 46% unknown. The causes of violent deaths
were gunshot (56%), car bomb (13%), other explosion/ordnance (14%), air
strike (13%), accident (2%), unknown (2%). A copy of a death
certificate was available for a high proportion of the reported deaths
(92 per cent of those households asked to produce one).
Concerning war-related deaths (civilian and non-civilian), and deaths from criminal gangs, Iraq's Health Minister Ali al-Shemari said that since the March 2003 invasion between 100,000-150,000 Iraqis had been killed. "Al-Shemari said on Thursday [Nov. 9, 2006]
that he based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought
to morgues and hospitals – though such a calculation would come out
closer to 130,000 in total."
Los Angeles Times: "At least 50,000 Iraqis have died violently"—as of June 2006.
"Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but not counted
because of serious lapses in recording deaths. ... The Los Angeles
Times attempted to reach a comprehensive figure by obtaining statistics
from the Baghdad morgue and the Health Ministry and checking those
numbers against a sampling of local health departments for possible
 Iraqi Security Forces (aligned with Coalition)
|2003-2004: 1,300 police & 453 soldiers killed
2005: 1,497 police & 1,082 soldiers killed
2006: 1,481 police & 627 soldiers killed
2007: 2,017 police & 432 soldiers killed
2008: 195 police & 98 soldiers
Total: 6,490 police and 3,530 soldiers killed
 Media and aid workers
112 journalists, 40 media support workers, and 95 aid workers have
been killed. Totals as listed at source pages on 25 September 2007.
 U.S. armed forces
Graph of monthly deaths of U.S. military in Iraq.
4,000 dead as of March 2008. As of March 2008
there were 8,914 wounded requiring medical air transport. 20,416
wounded did not require medical air transport. Of all the wounded
13,109 were unable to return to duty within 72 hours. Medical air
transport was required for an additional 8,273 for non-hostile
injuries, and for 23,052 for diseases or other medical conditions. 
 Coalition deaths by hostile fire
|As of January 10, 2008 3,431 of the 4,228 total coalition military
deaths were by hostile fire. 3,201 of the 3,921 total U.S. deaths were
by hostile fire.
 Armed forces of other coalition countries
|See Multinational force in Iraq.
As of March 24, 2008 there were 311 total deaths. Breakdown:
Australia 2. Bulgaria 13. Czech Republic 1. Denmark 7. El Salvador 5.
Estonia 2. Fiji 1. Georgia 1. Hungary 1. Italy 33. Kazakhstan 1. Latvia
3. Netherlands 2. Poland 23. Romania 3. Slovakia 4. South Korea 1.
Spain 11. Thailand 2. Ukraine 18. United Kingdom 177. 
Contractors. At least 1,016 deaths between March 2003 and January 2008. 236 of those are from the USA. Contractors are "Americans, Iraqis and workers from more than three dozen other countries." 10,569 wounded or injured.
Contractors "cook meals, do laundry, repair infrastructure, translate
documents, analyze intelligence, guard prisoners, protect military
convoys, deliver water in the heavily fortified Green Zone and stand
sentry at buildings - often highly dangerous duties almost identical to
those performed by many U.S. troops." 182,000 employees of U.S.-government-funded contractors and subcontractors (118,000 Iraqi, 43,000 Other, 21,000 U.S.).
Among other confirmed contractors killed are: 47 British, 34 Turkish,
23 South African, 20 Fijian, 19 Nepali, 14 Filipino, 7 Pakistani, 6
Bulgarian, 6 Jordanian, 5 Australian, 5 Canadian, 5 Egyptian, 4
Lebanese, 4 New Zealander, 4 Russian, 4 South Korean, 3 Croatian, 3
French, 3 German, 3 Macedonian, 3 Polish, 2 Bosnian, 2 Finnish, 2
Hungarian, 2 Indian, 1 Brazilian, 1 Colombian, 1 Japanese, 1 Czech, 1
Danish, 1 Dutch, 1 Guam, 1 Honduran, 1 Indonesian, 1 Italian, 1
Kuwaiti, 1 Portuguese, 1 Romanian, 1 Somali, 1 Swedish, 1 Syrian, 1
Ukrainian. The rest are presumed to be Iraqi.
 Additional statistics
Overview of casualties by type
(see the rest of the article below for more info)
- Deadliest single insurgent bombings:
- Other deadly days:
- Nov. 23, 2006 (281 killed) and April 18, 2007 (233 killed):
- "4 bombings in Baghdad kill at least 183. ... Nationwide, the
number of people killed or found dead on Wednesday [April 18, 2007] was
233, which was the second deadliest day in Iraq since The Associated
Press began keeping records in May 2005. Five car bombings, mortar
rounds and other attacks killed 281 people across Iraq on Nov. 23,
2006, according to the AP count."
Graph of monthly wounded in action of U.S. military personnel in Iraq.
Wounded in action
- As of January 12, 2007, 500 U.S. troops have undergone amputations due to the Iraq War. Toes and fingers aren't counted.
- As of September 30, 2006, 725 American troops have had limbs amputated from wounds received in Iraq and Afghanistan.
- A 2006 study by Walter Reed Medical Center,
which serves more critically injured soldiers than most VA hospitals,
concluded that 62 percent of patients there had suffered a brain injury.
In March 2003, U.S. military personnel were wounded in action at a
rate averaging about 350 per month. As of September 2007, this rate has
increased to about 675 per month.
- U.S. military: number unknown.
- An October 18, 2005 USA Today article reports:
- "More than one in four U.S. troops have come home from the Iraq war
with health problems that require medical or mental health treatment,
according to the Pentagon's first detailed screening of servicemembers leaving a war zone."
- Iraqi combatants: number unknown
- As of November 4, 2006, the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees
estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring
countries, and 1.6 million were displaced internally, with nearly
100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.
 Contractor casualties
Their status as civilian is controversial. They are employees of U.S. government contractors and subcontractors, private military contractors, U.S. Department of Defense, etc.. The contractors come from many nations including Iraq and the USA.
A July 4, 2007 Los Angeles Times article reports:
"More than 180,000 civilians - including Americans, foreigners and
Iraqis - are working in Iraq under U.S. contracts, according to State
and Defense department figures obtained by the Los Angeles Times. ...
"The numbers include at least 21,000 Americans, 43,000 foreign
contractors and about 118,000 Iraqis - all employed in Iraq by U.S. tax
dollars, according to the most recent government data."
A July 3, 2007 Reuters article reports:
"The department said it had recorded 990 deaths - 917 in Iraq and 73
in Afghanistan - by the end of March. Since then, according to incident
logs tallied by Reuters in Baghdad and Kabul, at least 16 contractors
have died in Iraq and two in Afghanistan. ...
"The Labor Department's statistics put the number of wounded in Iraq
between March 1, 2003 and March 31, 2007 as 10,569. The corresponding
figure for Afghanistan, from September 2001 to March 2007, is 2,428. ...
"Joseph McDermott, the Assistant Inspector General for Iraq, quoted
Labor Department statistics as saying that of 900-plus contractors
killed by the end of April, 224 were U.S. citizens."
From a New York Times article published May 19, 2007:
"At least 146 contract workers were killed in Iraq in the first
three months of the year, by far the highest number for any quarter
since the war began in March 2003, according to the Labor Department,
which processes death and injury claims for those working as United
States government contractors in Iraq.
The April 30, 2007 quarterly report to Congress of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction states:
"Since Iraq reconstruction began, 916 death claims for civilian
contractors working on U.S.-funded projects in Iraq have been filed. In
the quarter ending March 31, 2007, the Department of Labor reported 146
new death claims. DoS reports that 16 U.S. civilians died in Iraq this
quarter. Since the beginning of the U.S. reconstruction effort, 224
U.S. civilians have died in Iraq."
A February 23, 2007 Associated Press article reports that there are
120,000 contractors. It states that through the end of 2006 there have
been 769 deaths and "3,367 injuries serious enough to require four or
more days off the job."
A January 28, 2007 Houston Chronicle article
reports that the Pentagon estimates around 100,000 contractors are
currently in Iraq, and that the Pentagon does not track contractor
deaths. The article reports: "Halliburton's
KBR is the largest military contractor operating in Iraq, with more
than 50,000 employees and subcontractors working there, as well as in
Kuwait and Afghanistan."
The article reports from Labor Department information that more than
770 civilian contractors of U.S.-based companies in Iraq died between
March 2003 and Dec. 31, 2006. 7,761 have been injured in Iraq. "How
many of these civilian-contractor casualties were American citizens is
unknown. Labor officials say they cannot provide a breakdown by
The article also reports:
The Labor Department has these numbers because it tracks workers'
compensation claims by injured workers or families of slain contractors
under the federal Defense Base Act. "Using employee time lost is a kind
of a weird way to track casualties," Singer noted. "But it's part of
the bizarre nature of this industry and the way it's been used in
Iraq." Still, the Labor Department figures don't tell the full story.
An October 10, 2006 Reuters article
reports, "Their number in Iraq is estimated at up to 100,000, from
highly-trained former special forces soldiers to drivers, cooks,
mechanics, plumbers, translators, electricians and laundry workers and
other support personnel."
An April 2, 2004 Boston Globe article
reports: "Just how much the growing security burden in Iraq is costing
US taxpayers is hard to gauge because few reconstruction contracts are
made public and there is no official estimate of how many security
specialists are active there. Analysts estimate that corporations have
some 30,000 to 40,000 workers in Iraq"
Concerning the number of security-related contractors an April 19, 2004 New York Times article
states: "But more and more, they give the appearance of private,
for-profit militias — by several estimates, a force of roughly 20,000
on top of an American military presence of 130,000.
That article also reports: "Sorting out lines of authority and
communication can be complex. Many security guards are hired as
'independent contractors' by companies that, in turn, are
sub-contractors of larger security companies, which are themselves
subcontractors of a prime contractor, which may have been hired by a
United States agency."
An April 13, 2004 Robert Fisk article reports: "At least 18 000 mercenaries, many of them tasked to protect US troops and personnel, are now believed to be in Iraq."
The article reported: "At least 80 foreign mercenaries - security
guards recruited from the United States, Europe and South Africa and
working for American companies - have been killed in the past eight
days in Iraq." The article noted that this was more than the roughly 70
coalition troops who were killed in the same period.
 Iraqi invasion casualties
Before the Iraq War, in March 2002 in Afghanistan at a news conference at Bagram Air Base, U.S. General Tommy Franks had famously said, "we don't do body counts."
This Iraqi soldier was killed in April, 2003 by United States Marines.
General Tommy Franks reportedly estimated soon after the invasion that there had been 30,000 Iraqi casualties as of April 9, 2003.
That number comes from the transcript of an October 2003 interview of
Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld by Bob Woodward. They were discussing
a number reported by the Washington Post. But neither could remember
the number clearly, nor whether it was just for deaths, or both deaths
An October 20, 2003 study
by the Project on Defense Alternatives at Commonwealth Institute in
Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), stated that for March 19, 2003 to April
30, 2003, "Based on the analysis that follows we estimate that the 2003
Iraq war produced between 7,600 and 10,800 Iraqi combatant fatalities."
The study also stated: "Our analysis of the evidence leads to the
conclusion that between 10,800 and 15,100 Iraqis were killed in the
war. Of these, between 3,200 and 4,300 were noncombatants -- that is:
civilians who did not take up arms."
The study explained that to arrive at these numbers, they had
adjusted the underlying incident reports from the field by reducing
each count by anywhere from 20% to 60%, based on their own reliability
assessments, in order to "control for casualty inflation -- a prevalent
form of bias."
The study author Carl Conetta reported: "All told, more than 40,000 Iraqis were killed or injured,"
The Iraq Body Count project documented a higher number of civilian deaths up to the end of the major combat phase (May 1, 2003). In a 2005 report
using updated info the (IBC) reported that 7,299 civilians are
documented to have been killed, primarily by US air and ground forces.
There were 17,338 civilian injuries inflicted up to May 1, 2003. The
IBC says their figures are likely underestimates because: "it should be
noted that many deaths will likely go unreported or unrecorded by
officials and media."
A May 28, 2003 Guardian
article reported "Extrapolating from the death-rates of between 3% and
10% found in the units around Baghdad, one reaches a toll of between
13,500 and 45,000 dead among troops and paramilitaries.
 Iraqi Healthcare deterioration
A November 11, 2006 Los Angeles Times article reports:
The [Iraq] nation's health has deteriorated to a level not seen since the 1950s, said Joseph Chamie, former director of the U.N. Population Division
and an Iraq specialist. "They were at the forefront", he said, referring to healthcare just before the 1991 Persian Gulf War
. "Now they're looking more and more like a country in sub-Saharan Africa
A November 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune article reported what Iraq's Health Minister, Ali al-Shemari, said about the issue:
Al-Shemari said Iraq needed at least 10 years to rebuild its
infrastructure, and that the medical situation in the country was
"gloomy." There was a shortage of medical supplies, which sometimes
took months to reach the country from abroad, while roadblocks
prevented people from getting to hospitals, he said. No hospital has
been built in Iraq since 1983, and the country's 15,000 available
hospital beds were well short of the 80,000 beds needed. The minister
also noted that many doctors had left the country. "We need help from
anybody," Al-Shemari said.
 Total Iraqi casualties
Estimates of the total number of Iraqi war-related deaths are highly disputed. National Public Radio has a bar chart with various estimates.
 Various estimates
In December 2005 President Bush said there were 30,000 Iraqi dead.
White House spokesman Scott McClellan later said it was "not an
official government estimate", and was based on media reports.
The United Nations reported that 34,452 violent civilian deaths
occurred in 2006, based on data from morgues, hospitals, and municipal
authorities across Iraq.
For 2006 a January 2, 2007 Associated Press
article reports: "The tabulation by the Iraqi ministries of Health,
Defence and Interior, showed that 14,298 civilians, 1,348 police and
627 soldiers had been killed in the violence that raged across the
country last year. The Associated Press figure, gleaned from daily news
reports from Baghdad, arrived at a total of 13,738 deaths."The Australian
reports in a January 2, 2007 article: "A figure of 3700 civilian deaths
in October , the latest tally given by the UN based on data from
the Health Ministry and the Baghdad morgue, was branded exaggerated by
the Iraqi Government."
Iraqi government estimates include "people killed in bombings and
shootings but not deaths classed as 'criminal'." Also, they "include no
deaths among the many civilians wounded in attacks who may die later
from wounds. Nor do they include many people kidnapped whose fate
A June 25, 2006 Los Angeles Times article, "War's Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000",
reported that their estimate of violent deaths consisted "mostly of
civilians" but probably also included security forces and insurgents.
It added that, "Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but
not counted because of serious lapses in recording deaths in the
chaotic first year after the invasion, when there was no functioning
Iraqi government, and continued spotty reporting nationwide since."
Here is how the Times got their number: "The Baghdad morgue received
30,204 bodies from 2003 through mid-2006, while the Health Ministry
said it had documented 18,933 deaths from 'military clashes' and
'terrorist attacks' from April 5, 2004, to June 1, 2006. Together, the
toll reaches 49,137. However, samples obtained from local health
departments in other provinces show an undercount that brings the total
well beyond 50,000. The figure also does not include deaths outside
Baghdad in the first year of the invasion."
Another study was commissioned by the United Nations Development
Program (UNDP), called the Iraq Living Conditions Survey (ILCS), which
sampled almost 22,000 households across all Iraqi provinces. It
estimated 24,000 war-related violent deaths by May 2004 (with a 95
percent confidence interval from 18,000 to 29,000). This study also did
not attempt to measure what portion of its estimate was made up of
civilians. It would include Iraqi military killed during the invasion,
as well as "insurgents" or other fighters thereafter. This study has been criticized for various reasons. For more info see the section in Lancet surveys of Iraq War casualties that compares the Lancet and UNDP ILCS studies.
 Iraqi Health Ministry/WHO survey
Here follows additional info beyond that found in the "Iraqi deaths" part of the Overview section higher up.
Les Roberts, co-author of the Lancet study, said Friday, January 10, 2008:
article found a doubling of mortality after the invasion, we found a
2.4-fold increase. Thus, we roughly agree on the number of excess
deaths. The big difference is that we found almost all the increase
from violence, they found one-third of the increase from violence. ..."
"It is likely that people would be unwilling to admit violent deaths to the study workers who were government employees. ..."
"Finally, their data suggests one-sixth of deaths over the
occupation through June 2006 were from violence. Our data suggests a
majority of deaths were from violence. The morgue and graveyard data I
have seen is more in keeping with our results." 
 ORB survey of Iraqi war deaths in August 2007
A September 14, 2007 estimate by ORB
(Opinion Research Business), an independent British polling agency,
suggests that the total Iraqi violent death toll due to the Iraq War
since the US-led invasion is in excess of 1.2 million (1,220,580).
Although higher than the 2006 Lancet estimate
through June 2006, these results, which were based on a survey of 1499
adults in Iraq from August 12-19, 2007, are more or less consistent
with the figures that were published in the Lancet study.
On 28 January 2008,
ORB published an update based on additional work carried out in rural
areas of Iraq. Some 600 additional interviews were undertaken and as a
result of this the death estimate was revised to 1,033,000 with a given
range of 946,000 to 1,120,000.
Participants of the ORB survey were asked the following question:
"How many members of your household, if any, have died as a
result of the conflict in Iraq since 2003 (ie as a result of violence
rather than a natural death such as old age)? Please note that I mean
those who were actually living under your roof."
The results were
Number of deaths
|Four or more
 D3 Systems poll in early 2007
From Feb. 25 to March 5, 2007 D3 Systems  conducted a poll for BBC, ABC News, ARD German TV and USA Today.
The methodology was described thusly: "This poll for ABC News, USA
Today, the BBC and ARD was conducted Feb. 25-March 5, 2007, through
in-person interviews with a random national sample of 2,212 Iraqi
adults, including oversamples in Anbar province, Basra city, Kirkuk and
the Sadr City section of Baghdad. The results have a 2.5-point error
margin. Field work by D3 Systems of Vienna, Va., and KA Research Ltd.
Question 35 asked:
"Have you or an immediate family member - by which I mean someone
living in this household – been physically harmed by the violence that
is occurring in the country at this time?"
Here are the results in percentages:
17% of respondents reported that at least one member of the
household had been 'physically harmed by the violence that is occurring
in the country at this time', translating into at least ~650-700,000
Iraqis. The survey did not ask whether multiple household members had
been harmed, so the actual number would most likely be significantly
 Iraq Health Minister estimate in November 2006
In early November 2006 Iraq's Health Minister Ali al-Shemari said that he estimated between 100,000 and 150,000 people had been killed since the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion. The Taipei Times
reported on his methodology: "Al-Shemari said on Thursday [Nov. 9,
2006] that he based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day
brought to morgues and hospitals -- though such a calculation would
come out closer to 130,000 in total." The Washington Post
reported: "As al-Shemari issued the startling new estimate, the head of
the Baghdad central morgue said Thursday he was receiving as many as 60
violent death victims each day at his facility alone. Dr. Abdul-Razzaq
al-Obaidi said those deaths did not include victims of violence whose
bodies were taken to the city's many hospital morgues or those who were
removed from attack scenes by relatives and quickly buried according to
From a November 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune article:
"Each day we lost 100 persons, that means per month 3,000, per year
it's 36,000, plus or minus 10 percent," al-Shemari said. "So by three
years, 120,000, half year 20,000, that means 140,000, plus or minus 10
percent," he said, explaining how he came to the figures. "This
includes all Iraqis killed — police, ordinary people, children," he
said, adding that people who were kidnapped and later found dead were
also included in his estimate. He said the figures were compiled by
counting bodies brought to "forensic institutes" or hospitals.
From the November 11, 2006 Taipei Times article:
An official with the ministry also confirmed the figure yesterday
[Nov. 10, 2006], but later said that the estimated deaths ranged
between 100,000 and 150,000. "The minister was misquoted. He said
between 100,000-150,000 people were killed in three-and-a-half years,"
the official said.
 2006 Excess Mortality Study
The October 2006 Lancet study
estimated total excess deaths up to July 2006. Total deaths (civilian
and non-civilian) include all additional deaths due to increased
lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.. The
survey estimated 654,965 excess deaths related to the war. The 2006
study involved surveys between May 20 and July 10, 2006. More
households were surveyed than during the 2004 study, allowing for a 95%
of 392,979 to 942,636 excess Iraqi deaths. The result was disputed by
President Bush based both on the number of deaths and the methodology.
Although the British Government initially tried to dispute the accuracy of the Lancet survey, the UK Ministry of Defence's chief scientific adviser later said the survey's methods were "close to best practice" and the study design was "robust".
The ORB and Lancet survey figures are the only statistically accurate
casualty figures which are intended to show the total deaths (rather
than lower limits, provided by surveys of only those deaths reported to
authorities or media agencies).
An October 12, 2006 San Francisco Chronicle article
reported: "Asked at the news conference what he thinks the number is
now, Bush said: 'I stand by the figure a lot of innocent people have
lost their life.' At a separate Pentagon briefing, Gen. George Casey,
the top U.S. commander in Iraq, said that the [Lancet] figure 'seems
way, way beyond any number that I have seen. I've not seen a number
higher than 50,000. And so I don't give it that much credibility at
 2004 Excess Mortality Study
The October 2004 Lancet study done by public health experts from Johns Hopkins University and published on 29 October 2004
in the Lancet medical journal, estimated that 100,000 "excess" Iraqi
deaths from all causes had occurred since the US invasion began. The
study did not attempt to measure how many of these were civilian, but
the study's authors have said they believe that the "vast majority"
were noncombatants, based on 7% of the casualties being women and 46%
being children under the age of 15 (including Falluja data). To arrive
at these excess death figures, a survey was taken from 988 Iraqi
households in 33 clusters throughout Iraq, in which the residents were
asked how many people lived there and how many births and deaths there
had been since the war began. They then compared the death rate with
the average from the 15 months before the war. Iraqis were found to be
1.5 times more likely to die from all causes after the invasion (rising
from 0.5% to 0.79% per year) than in the 15 months preceding the war,
producing an estimate of 98,000 excess deaths. This figure excluded
data from one cluster in Falluja, which was deemed too much of an
outlier for inclusion in the national estimate. If including data from
Falluja, which showed a higher rate of violent deaths than the other 32
clusters combined, the increased death rate would be raised from 1.5 to
2.5 fold, violent deaths would be 58 times more likely with most of
them due to air-strikes by coalition forces, and an additional 200,000
fatalities would be estimated.
The study contains the following Summary:
Background: In March, 2003, military forces, mainly from the
USA and the UK, invaded Iraq. We did a survey to compare mortality
during the period of 14.6 months before the invasion with the 17.8
months after it.Methods: A cluster sample survey was undertaken throughout
Iraq during September, 2004. 33 clusters of 30 households each were
interviewed about household composition, births, and deaths since
January, 2002. In those households reporting deaths, the date, cause,
and circumstances of violent deaths were recorded. We assessed the
relative risk of death associated with the 2003 invasion and occupation
by comparing mortality in the 17.8 months after the invasion with the
14.6-month period preceding it.Findings: The risk of death was estimated to be 2.5-fold
(95% CI 1.6-4.2) higher after the invasion when compared with the
preinvasion period. Two-thirds of all violent deaths were reported in
one cluster in the city of Falluja. If we exclude the Falluja data, the
risk of death is 1.5-fold (1.1-2.3) higher after the invasion. We
estimate that 98,000 more deaths than expected (8000-194,000) happened
after the invasion outside of Falluja and far more if the outlier
Falluja cluster is included. The major causes of death before the
invasion were myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and
other chronic disorders whereas after the invasion violence was the
primary cause of death. Violent deaths were widespread, reported in 15
of 33 clusters, and were mainly attributed to coalition forces. Most
individuals reportedly killed by coalition forces were men. The risk of
death from violence in the period after the invasion was 58 times
higher (95% CI 8.1-419) than in the period before the war.Interpretation: Making conservative assumptions, we think
that about 100,000 excess deaths, or more have happened since the 2003
invasion of Iraq. Violence accounted for most of the excess deaths and
air strikes from coalition forces accounted for most violent deaths. We
have shown that collection of public-health information is possible
even during periods of extreme violence. Our results need further
verification and should lead to changes to reduce noncombatant deaths
from air strikes.
See Lancet study for more details of the methodology and subsequent controversy about the study.
 Iraqi civilian casualties
Iraqi civilians have suffered the bulk of fatalities in this
conflict. Estimates of Iraqi civilian casualties are highly disputed.
It is difficult for most estimates of Iraqi casualties to separate
civilian from combatant casualties. Various estimates are discussed
below, and elsewhere in this article. See also the section on total
For the major combat phase of the war from March–April 2003, Abu Dhabi TV reported on April 8, 2003 that Iraqi sources had claimed that 1,252 civilians had been killed and 5,103 had been wounded. The Iraq Body Count project, incorporating subsequent reports, has reported that by the end of the major combat phase up to April 30, 2003, 7,299 civilians had been killed, primarily by US air and ground forces.
 People's Kifah
A study by an Iraqi political party, the "People's Kifah, or
Struggle Against Hegemony," (PK) reported the findings of a survey it
conducted between March and June of 2003 throughout the non-Kurdish
areas of Iraq. They tallied 36,533 civilians killed in those areas by
June 2003. Information on this study was first published on the website
of retired Wall Street Journal reporter Jude Wanniski in August of 2003.
While detailed town-by-town totals are given by the PK spokesperson,
details of methodology are very thin and raw data is not in the public
domain. A still less detailed report on this study appeared some months
later in Al Jazeerah.
The Al Jazeera report claims the study covered up to October 2003, but
this can not be accurate, as the exact same figures were already
published on the Wanniski website in August of 2003.
Note that both the IBC below and PK above define the word civilian to exclude the various paramilitary forces operating in Iraq as well as the official military forces that existed under Saddam Hussein's regime.
 Iraq Body Count project
An independent UK/US group, the Iraq Body Count project (IBC), compiles reported
Iraqi civilian deaths resulting from the invasion and occupation,
including those caused directly by coalition military action, those
caused directly by the Iraqi insurgency,
and those resulting from excess crime (the Iraqi Body Count project
claims that the Occupying Authority is responsible to prevent these
deaths under international law). It shows a minimum of 81,881 and a
maximum of 89,360 as of 12 March 2008.
This total represents deaths that have been published by at least two media organizations.
However, the IBC has been criticized for counting only a small
percentage of the number of actual deaths because they only include
deaths reported by respected media agencies.
IBC Director John Sloboda admits, "We've always said our work is an
undercount, you can't possibly expect that a media-based analysis will
get all the deaths."
Here are the yearly IBC civilian death totals (as retrieved on Sept. 23, 2007):
||1 May 03 - 19 Mar 04
||6332 (not counting 7400 invasion deaths through May 1, 2003)
||20 Mar 04 - 19 Mar 05
||20 Mar 05 - 19 Mar 06
||20 Mar 06 - 16 Mar 07
Concerning the yearly totals IBC states: "All figures are taken from
the "maximum" confirmed deaths in the IBC database. However, IBC's
rates and counts will rise over the coming months, as data is still
being added to the IBC database for 2006 and other periods covered
The IBC released a report detailing the deaths it recorded between March 2003 and March 2005
in which it recorded 24,865 civilian deaths. The report says the US and
its allies were responsible for the largest share (37%) of the 24,865
deaths. The remaining deaths were attributed to anti-occupations forces
(9%), crime (36%) and unknown agents (11%). It also lists the primary
sources used by the media: mortuaries, medics, Iraqi officials,
eyewitnesses, police, relatives, US-Coalition, journalists, NGOs,
 Iraqi refugees crisis
As of November 4, 2006,
the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees estimated that 1.8 million
Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 1.6 million
were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria
and Jordan each month.
As of 2007 more Iraqis have lost their homes and become refugees
than the population of any other country. Over 3.9 million people,
close to 16% of the Iraqi population, have become uprooted. Of these,
around 2 million have fled Iraq and flooded other countries, and 1.9
million are estimated to be refugees inside Iraq.
Roughly 40 percent of Iraq's middle class
is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic
persecution and have no desire to return. All kinds of people, from
university professors to bakers, have been targeted by militias, insurgents and criminals. An estimated 331 school teachers were slain in the first four months of 2006, according to Human Rights Watch, and at least 2,000 Iraqi doctors have been killed and 250 kidnapped since the 2003 U.S. invasion.
A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.
As a result of growing international pressure, on June 1, 2007 the Bush
administration said it was ready to admit 7,000 Iraqi refugees who had
helped the coalition since the invasion. According to Washington-based Refugees International the U.S. has admitted fewer than 800 Iraqi refugees since the invasion, Sweden had accepted 18,000, and Australia had resettled almost 6,000.
 Iraqi insurgent casualties
There is a representative list of insurgents and militia members killed in the Iraq War according to a few published news sources. See: List of Insurgents killed in Iraq.
According to the list, and the other sources discussed there, at least
16,500 insurgents, militia, suicide bombers, and other fighters have
been killed during the war.
Insurgent deaths, like civilian deaths, are hard to count or estimate. See:
See also the examples of undercounting shown in the next section.
An Al Qaeda leader claimed that 4000 foreign insurgents have been killed in the war. See this Sept. 28, 2006 Associated Press article:
The Lancet surveys did not ask whether the dead were combatants or not.
 Iraqi Security Forces
There are various estimates for the number of Iraqi police and military killed. See the overview section higher up for the latest numbers for Iraqi Security Force (ISF) casualties.
The "Iraq Index" of the Brookings Institution keeps a running total of Iraqi Security Force (ISF) casualties.
There is also a breakdown of ISF casualties at the icasualties.org site.
Most studies estimating the casualties due to the war in Iraq
acknowledge various reasons why the estimates and counts may be low.
A January 10, 2008 Washington Post
article reported: "Previous research has shown that household surveys
typically miss 30 to 50 percent of deaths. One reason is that some
families that have suffered violent deaths leave the survey area. ...
Some people are kidnapped and disappear, and others turn up months or
years later in mass graves. Some are buried or otherwise disposed of
without being recorded. In particularly violent areas, local
governments have effectively ceased to function, and there are
ineffective channels for collecting and passing information between
hospitals, morgues and the central government."
On November 10, 2006 The Washington Post
reported: "Accurate figures on the number of people who have died in
the Iraq conflict have long been the subject of debate. Police and
hospitals often give widely conflicting figures of those killed in
major bombings. In addition, death figures are reported through
multiple channels by government agencies that function with varying
The October 2006 Lancet study
states: "Aside from Bosnia, we can find no conflict situation where
passive surveillance [used by the IBC] recorded more than 20% of the
deaths measured by population-based methods [used in the Lancet
studies]. In several outbreaks, disease and death recorded by
facility-based methods underestimated events by a factor of ten or more
when compared with population-based estimates. Between 1960 and 1990,
newspaper accounts of political deaths in Guatemala correctly reported
over 50% of deaths in years of low violence but less than 5% in years
of highest violence." The report describes no other specific examples except for this study of Guatemala.
The Lancet reference used is to Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer and their 1999 book, State Violence in Guatemala, 1960-1996: A Quantitative Reflection. From the introduction:
"The CIIDH database consists of cases culled from direct testimonies and documentary and press sources."
They report in chapter 7:
"Figure 7.1 shows that in the CIIDH database, most of the
information for human rights violations prior to 1977 comes from press
sources. ... Approximately 10,890 cases were coded from the newspapers.
Sixty-three percent of the press cases were taken from Prensa Libre, 10
percent from El Gráfico, 8 percent from La Hora and El Impacto
respectively, and 6 percent from El Imparcial. The remaining 5 percent
is made up by eight other newspapers."
But they reported that in later, more violent years:
"When the level of violence increased dramatically in the late
1970s and early 1980s, numbers of reported violations in the press
stayed very low. In 1981, one of the worst years of state violence, the
numbers fall towards zero. The press reported almost none of the rural
There is a list
of figures, tables, and charts in the book that can be used to
calculate what percentage of the deaths were reported by the 13
Guatemalan newspapers for each year when compared to testimonies of
witnesses compiled by popular organizations.
A July 28, 2004 article by The Independent reports that "some families bury their dead without notifying the authorities."
Stephen Soldz, who runs the website "Iraq Occupation and Resistance Report", wrote in a February 5, 2006 article:
"Of course, in conditions of active rebellion, the safer areas
accessible to Western reporters are likely to be those under
US/Coalition control, where deaths are, in turn, likely to be due to
insurgent attacks. Areas of insurgent control, which are likely to be
subject to US and Iraqi government attack, for example most of Anbar
province, are simply off-limits to these reporters. Thus, the realities
of reporting imply that reporters will be witness to a larger fraction
of deaths due to insurgents and a lesser proportion of deaths due to US
and Iraqi government forces."
A June 25, 2006 Los Angeles Times article
reports: "Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but not
counted because of serious lapses in recording deaths. ... The [Los
Angeles] Times attempted to reach a comprehensive figure by obtaining
statistics from the Baghdad morgue and the Health Ministry and checking
those numbers against a sampling of local health departments for
An October 19, 2006 Washington Post article
reports: "The deaths reported by officials and published in the news
media represent only a fraction of the thousands of mutilated bodies
winding up in Baghdad's overcrowded morgue each month. ... Bodies are
increasingly being dumped in and around Baghdad in fields staked out by
individual Shiite militias and Sunni insurgent groups. Iraqi security
forces often refuse to go to the dumping grounds, leaving the precise
number of bodies in those sites unknown. Civilian deaths, unlike those
of American troops, often go unrecorded."
The Australian reports in a January 2, 2007 article
that Iraqi government casualty estimates include "people killed in
bombings and shootings but not deaths classed as 'criminal'." Also,
they "include no deaths among the many civilians wounded in attacks who
may die later from wounds. Nor do they include many people kidnapped
whose fate remains unknown."
In a November 7, 2004 press release concerning the October 2004 Lancet study the Iraq Body Count project
(IBC) states: "We have always been quite explicit that our own total is
certain to be an underestimate of the true position, because of gaps in
reporting or recording".
One of the sources used by the media are morgues. Only the central
Baghdad area morgue has released figures consistently. While that is
the largest morgue in Iraq and in the most consistently violent area,
the absence of comprehensive morgue figures elsewhere leads to
undercounting. IBC makes it clear that, due to these issues, its count
will almost certainly be below the full toll in its 'Quick FAQ' on its
Quote from an IBC note:
"The Iraq Body Count (IBC) estimate for x350, like that for x334, was
made possible by examination of the detailed data supplied to the
Associated Press (AP) by the morgues surveyed in AP's 23rd May 2004
survey of Iraqi morgues."
That May 23, 2004 Associated Press article
points out the lack of morgue data from many areas of Iraq. Also, it
states: "The [Baghdad] figure does not include most people killed in
big terrorist bombings, Hassan said. The cause of death in such cases
is obvious so bodies are usually not taken to the morgue, but given
directly to victims' families. Also, the bodies of killed fighters from
groups like the al-Mahdi Army are rarely taken to morgues."
 Systematic underreporting by U.S.
An April 2005 article by The Independent reports:
"A week before she was killed by a suicide bomber, humanitarian
worker Marla Ruzicka forced military commanders to admit they did keep
records of Iraqi civilians killed by US forces. ... in an essay Ms
Ruzicka wrote a week before her death on Saturday and published
yesterday, the 28-year-old revealed that a Brigadier General told her
it was 'standard operating procedure' for US troops to file a report
when they shoot a non-combatant. She obtained figures for the number of
civilians killed in Baghdad between 28 February and 5 April , and
discovered that 29 had been killed in firefights involving US forces
and insurgents. This was four times the number of Iraqi police killed."
The December 2006 report of the Iraq Study Group (ISG) found that the United States has filtered out reports of violence in order to disguise its policy failings in Iraq. A December 7, 2006 McClatchy Newspapers article
reports that the ISG found that U.S. officials reported 93 attacks or
significant acts of violence on one day in July 2006, yet "a careful
review of the reports for that single day brought to light more than
1,100 acts of violence." The article further reports:
"The finding confirmed a Sept. 8 McClatchy Newspapers report that
U.S. officials excluded scores of people killed in car bombings and
mortar attacks from tabulations measuring the results of a drive to
reduce violence in Baghdad. By excluding that data, U.S. officials were
able to boast that deaths from sectarian violence in the Iraqi capital
had declined by more than 52 percent between July and August, McClatchy
From the ISG report itself: "A murder of an Iraqi is not necessarily
counted as an attack. If we cannot determine the source of a sectarian
attack, that assault does not make it into the database. A roadside
bomb or a rocket or mortar attack that doesn't hurt U.S. personnel
 Casualties caused by criminal and political violence
In May 2004 the Associated Press completed a survey of the morgues in Baghdad and surrounding provinces. The survey tallied violent deaths from May 1, 2003, when President Bush declared an end to major combat operations, through April 30, 2004.
From the AP article:
In Baghdad, a city of about 5.6 million, 4,279 people were recorded
killed in the 12 months through April 30 , according to figures
provided by Kais Hassan, director of statistics at Baghdad's
Medicolegal Institute, which administers the city's morgues. "Before
the war, there was a strong government, strong security. There were a
lot of police on the streets and there were no illegal weapons," he
said during an AP reporter's visit to the morgue. "Now there are few
controls. There is crime, revenge killings, so much violence." The
figure does not include most people killed in big terrorist bombings,
Hassan said. The cause of death in such cases is obvious so bodies are
usually not taken to the morgue, but given directly to victims'
families. Also, the bodies of killed fighters from groups like the
al-Mahdi Army are rarely taken to morgues.
Accidental trauma deaths from car accidents, falls, etc. are not
included in the numbers. The article reports that the numbers translate
to 76 killings per 100,000 people in Baghdad, compared to 39 in
crime-ridden Bogotá, Colombia, 7.5 in New York City,
and 2.4 in neighboring Jordan. The article states that there were 3.0
killings per 100,000 people in Baghdad in 2002 (the year before the
Morgues surveyed in other parts of Iraq also reported large
increases in the number of homicides. Karbala, south of Baghdad,
increased from an average of one homicide per month in 2002 to an
average of 55 per month in the year following the invasion; in Tikrit,
north of Baghdad, where there were no homicides in 2002, the rate had
grown to an average of 17 per month; in the northern province of
Kirkuk, the rate had increased from 3 per month in 2002 to 34 per month
in the survey period.
 Non-Iraqi civilian casualties
Many non-combatants from both coalition and non-coalition countries have also been killed or wounded, including journalists and international aid personnel and foreign civilians. See the main overview chart at the top for numbers and more info.
 Coalition military casualties
For the latest casualty numbers see the overview chart at the top of the page. See also the icasualties.org site:
Since the official handover of power to the Iraq interim government on June 28, 2004, coalition soldiers have continued to come under attack in towns across Iraq.
National Public Radio, iCasualties.org, and GlobalSecurity.org have month-by-month charts of American troop deaths in the Iraq War.
British Casualty Monitor has a fortnightly updated graphical analysis of British casualties.
The combined total of coalition and contractor casualties in the conflict is now over ten times that of the 1990-1991 Gulf War.
In the Gulf War, coalition forces suffered around 378 deaths, and among
the Iraqi military, tens of thousands were killed, along with thousands
 Troops fallen ill, injured, or wounded
See the overview chart at the top of the page for recent numbers.
On August 29, 2006 the Christian Science Monitor reported:
"Because of new body armor and advances in military medicine, for
example, the ratio of combat-zone deaths to those wounded has dropped
from 24 percent in Vietnam to 13 percent in Iraq and Afghanistan. In
other words, the numbers of those killed as a percentage of overall
casualties is lower."
Many U.S. veterans of the Iraq War have reported a range of serious
health issues, including tumors, daily blood in urine and stool, sexual
dysfunction, migraines, frequent muscle spasms, and other symptoms
similar to the debilitating symptoms of "Gulf War Syndrome" reported by many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, which some believe is related to the United States' use of radioactive depleted uranium.
A study of U.S. veterans published in July 2004 in the The New England Journal of Medicine on posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) and other mental disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans
found that 5 to 9.4% (depending on the strictness of the PTSD
definition used) suffered from PTSD before deployment. After deployment
6.2 to 19.9% suffered from PTSD. For the broad definition of PTSD that
represents an increase of 10.5% (19.9 - 9.4% = 10.5%). That is 10,500
additional cases of PTSD for every 100,000 U.S. troops after they have
served in Iraq. ePluribus Media, an independent citizen journalism
collective, is tracking and cataloging press-reported possible,
probable, or confirmed incidents of post-deployment or combat-zone
cases in its PTSD Timeline.
Information on injuries suffered by troops of other coalition countries is less readily available, but a statement in Hansard indicated that 2,703 UK soldiers had been medically evacuated from Iraq for wounds or injuries as of October 4, 2004 and that 155 UK troops were wounded in combat in the initial invasion.
 Nightline controversy
Map showing U.S. casualty numbers by state
Ted Koppel, host of ABC's Nightline, devoted his entire show on April 30, 2004, to reading the names of 721 of the 737 U.S. troops who had died thus far. He did not mention deaths in Afghanistan. (The show hadn't been able to confirm the remaining 16 names.)
Claiming that this would constitute a political statement, the Sinclair Broadcast Group
took the action of barring the seven ABC-affiliated stations it
controls from airing the show. The decision to censor the broadcast
drew criticism from both sides, including members of the armed forces,
opponents of the war, MoveOn.org, and most notably Republican Senator John McCain, who denounced the move as "unpatriotic" and "a gross disservice to the public"
 Dec. 25, 2006. U.S. military death total surpasses 9/11 death toll.
Many newspapers reported that on Christmas day, December 25, 2006
the total number of U.S. military deaths from the Iraq War equaled and
surpassed the 2973 total deaths on 9/11 (not counting the 19 suicide hijackers). For example; a Dec. 27, 2006 Newsday article reported:
"A Christmas Day explosion pushed the number of American troops
killed in Iraq above the Sept. 11, 2001, death toll. ... The bomb
explosion Monday, which killed two soldiers south of Baghdad, raised
the number of troops killed to 2,974 since the beginning of the Iraq
war in 2003, according to a count by The Associated Press. Terrorists
hijacked jetliners on Sept. 11, 2001, and crashed them into the World
Trade Center, the Pentagon and a Pennsylvania field, killing 2,973
As of January 18, 2007, there were at least 500 American amputees due to the Iraq War. According to a Time magazine article, the 500th victim was a 24-year-old corporal, who lost both legs in a roadside bomb explosion on January 12, 2007. He was cared for at the military hospital in Landstuhl, Germany, and then was transferred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
The article reports: "The 500 major amputations — toes and fingers
aren't counted — represent 2.2% of the 22,700 U.S. troops wounded in
action. But the number rises to 5% in the category of soldiers whose
wounds prevent them returning to duty."
 Traumatic brain injuries (TBI)
A Feb. 2007 article by Discover
magazine, titled "Dead Men Walking. What sort of future do
brain-injured Iraq veterans face?", reports: "One expert from the VA
estimates the number of undiagnosed TBIs at over 7,500. Nearly 2,000
brain-injured soldiers have already received some level of care, ..."
USA Today reported in November 2007:
At least 20,000 U.S. troops who were not classified as wounded
during combat in Iraq and Afghanistan have been found with signs of
brain injuries, according to military and veterans records compiled by
The data, provided by the Army, Navy and Department of Veterans
Affairs, show that about five times as many troops sustained brain
trauma as the 4,471 officially listed by the Pentagon through Sept. 30.
These cases also are not reflected in the Pentagon's official tally of
wounded, which stands at 30,327.
 Mental illness and suicide
A March 12, 2007 Time magazine article reports on a study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine. About one third of the 103,788 veterans returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars seen at Veterans Affairs
facilities between September 30, 2001 and September 30, 2005 were
diagnosed with mental illness or a psycho-social disorder, such as
homelessness and marital problems, including domestic violence. More
than half of those diagnosed, 56%, were suffering from more than one
disorder. The most common combination was post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.
In January 2008 the U.S. Army reported that the rate of suicide
among soldiers in 2007 was the highest since the Army started counting
in 1980. There were 121 suicides in 2007, a 20% jump over the prior
year. Also, there were around 2100 attempted suicides and self-injuries
 See also
- ^ a b c "NPR: The Toll of War". National Public Radio's website bar chart of various death toll estimates.
^ WHO country office in Iraq. Iraq Family Health Survey. World Health Organization (WHO).
^ "New study says 151,000 Iraqi dead", BBC News Online, 10 January 2008.
^ "151,000 civilians killed since Iraq invasion". By Sarah Boseley. January 10, 2008. The Guardian.
- ^ a b "New Estimate of Violent Deaths Among Iraqis Is Lower". By David Brown and Joshua Partlow. January 10, 2008. Washington Post.
^ Alkhuzai AH, Ahmad IJ, Hweel MJ, Ismail TW, et al. (2008). "Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006". N Engl J Med 358 (2): 484-93. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa0707782. PMID 18184950.
- ^ a b Update on Iraqi Casualty Data by Opinion Research Business, January 2008
- ^ a b "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: 
^ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq May Top 1 Million". By Tina Susman. Sept. 14, 2007. Los Angeles Times.
^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. Sept. 16, 2007. The Observer (UK).
^ "The Media Ignore Credible Poll Revealing 1.2 Million Violent Deaths In Iraq". Sept. 18, 2007. MediaLens.
- ^ a b c Iraq Body Count project. Source of IBC quote on undercounting by media is here.
^ "Year Four: Simply the worst". Press Release 15, Iraq Body Count.
^ "Iraqi Death Toll Exceeded 34,000 in '06, U.N. Says". By Sabrina Tavernise. New York Times. Jan. 17, 2007.
- ^ a b c d 2006 Lancet study. PDF file of Lancet article: "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey"PDF (242 KiB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, October 11, 2006.
- ^ a b c Supplement to 2006 Lancet study: "The Human Cost of the War in Iraq: A Mortality Study, 2002-2006"PDF (603 KiB). By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doocy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts.
^ "The Iraq deaths study was valid and correct". The Age. October 21, 2006
- ^ a b c d "Iraqi health minister estimates as many as 150,000 Iraqis killed by insurgents". International Herald Tribune. Nov. 9, 2006.
- ^ a b c d "Iraqi death toll estimates go as high as 150,000". Taipei Times. Nov 11, 2006.
- ^ a b c "War's Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000". Louise Roug and Doug Smith. Los Angeles Times. June 25, 2006.
^ CNN.com - Iraqi police prime targets of insurgency - Jan 11, 2005
^ Operation Iraqi Freedom
^ DoD News: Coalition Provisional Authority Briefing
^ DefenseLINK News: Suicide Car Bomb Injures Iraqi Official, Coalition Continues Operations
^ DoD News: Coalition Provisional Authority Briefing
^ [ Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty ]
^ The Violence in Iraq Continues
^ Terror strikes blamed on al-Zarqawi in Iraq - Hunt for Al-Qaida - MSNBC.com
^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Us, Iraqi Soldiers Killed In Bomb Attack
^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | Multiple attacks kill 100 in Iraq
^ 35 insurgents, seven Iraqi troops killed near Baghdad - After Saddam - www.smh.com.au
^ US marines killed in Iraq ambush
^ CNN.com - Kirkuk suicide blast kills 19 - Sep 18, 2004
^ CNN.com - Insurgents attack Iraqi military targets - Sep 27, 2004
^ CNN.com - Four killed in attack on Iraqi national guard post - Oct 19, 2004
^ Guerrillas kill 22 Iraqi police, guardsmen; 6 U.S. troops hurt | The San Diego Union-Tribune
^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Iraqi Troops Killed In Car Bomb Attack
^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Us Marine, Iraqi Guardsmen Killed
^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Filipinos Killed In Us Camp Attack
^ Iraqi Resistance Report for events of Sunday, 4 April 2004, through Wednesday, 7 April 2004
^ Iraq Timeline 2004 - Council on Foreign Relations
^ Microsoft Word - $ASQISFChronologyMay2006.doc
^ 2,000 More M.P.'s Will Help Train the Iraqi Police - New York Times
^ 120 Iraqis, 7 US Soldiers Die in Bombings
^ iCasualties: OIF Iraqi Deaths
^ 16,273 deaths reported in Iraq in 2006
^ iCasualties - Journalist deaths in Iraq.
^ Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). "IRAQ: Journalists in Danger".
^ Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). "Media support workers killed since March 2003".
^ "NCCI - NGO coordination committee in Iraq". Aid workers killed in Iraq since 2003.
- ^ a b c "GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM - OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM, By Month". United States Department of Defense. "Prepared by: Defense Manpower Data Center. Statistical Information Analysis Division."
- ^ a b "Forces: U.S. & Coalition Casualties". CNN, From March 2003 onwards.
^ Many official U.S. tables at "Military Casualty Information". See latest injury, disease, and other-medical totals. See also: Latest fatality and wounded-in-action totals.
- ^ a b c iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al., "Iraq Coalition Casualties".
^ iCasualties - "U.S. Wounded By Week".
^ iCasualties - Coalition fatalities by cause of death.
^ iCasualties - "Iraq Coalition Casualties: Hostile - NonHostile Deaths".
^ iCasualties - "Deaths By Coalition Country".
- ^ a b c "In outsourced U.S. wars, contractor deaths top 1,000". By Bernd Debusmann. Reuters. July 3, 2007. 10,569 wounded and 933 deaths in Iraq. 224 are U.S. citizens.
- ^ a b iCasualties - "Iraq Coalition Casualties: Contractor Fatalities". Incomplete list.
- ^ a b "Reconstruction report: 916 death claims for civilian contractors in Iraq". USA Today. April 30, 2007.
- ^ a b "Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction : April 2007 Report".
- ^ a b Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. "April 30, 2007 Quarterly Report to Congress (Highlights, All Sections and Appendices)"PDF (10.8 MiB)
- ^ a b "Death Toll for Contractors Reaches New High in Iraq". By John M. Broder and James Risen. New York Times. May 19, 2007. "workers from more than three dozen other countries".
^ "Contractor deaths add up in Iraq". By Michelle Roberts. Deseret Morning News. Feb. 24, 2007. "often highly dangerous duties almost identical to those performed by many U.S. troops."
- ^ a b  "Private contractors outnumber U.S. troops in Iraq"]. By T. Christian Miller. Los Angeles Times. July 4, 2007. 182,000 contractors: "21,000 Americans, 43,000 foreign contractors and about 118,000 Iraqis".
^ "CHRONOLOGY-The deadliest bomb attacks in Iraq". Reuters. 17 Jan. 2007.
^ "4 bombings in Baghdad kill at least 183". By Steven R. Hurst and Lauren Frayer, Associated Press Writers.
- ^ a b A Grim Milestone: 500 Amputees; Time (magazine); Thursday, January 18, 2007
^ "Getting amputees back on their feet". By Eilene Zimmerman. San Francisco Chronicle. Nov. 8, 2006.
^ Basu, Moni. "Brain trauma a 'silent epidemic' among Iraq veterans", USA Today, 2006-11-19. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
^ "1 in 4 Iraq vets ailing on return". By Gregg Zoroya. USA Today. October 18, 2005.
- ^ a b "U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly". Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006.
^ "Iraq Contractor Deaths Go Little Noticed". By Michelle Roberts. The Guardian. Feb. 23, 2007.
^ "Contractor deaths in Iraq nearing 800". By David Ivanovich and Brett Clanton. Houston Chronicle. Jan. 28, 2007.
^ "In Iraq, contractor deaths near 650, legal fog thickens". By Bernd Debusmann, Reuters, Oct. 10, 2006.
^ "As insurgent attacks increase, so do contractors' costs". By Thanassis Cambanis and Stephen Glain, Globe Staff. The Boston Globe. April 2, 2004.
^ "Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq". New York Times. April 19, 2004.
^ "Deaths of scores of mercenaries hidden from view". By Robert Fisk and Patrick Cockburn. The Star. April 13, 2004.
^ "Tommy Franks - Wikiquote". "we don't do body counts." March 2002 in Afghanistan.
^ "Success in Afghan war hard to gauge". By Edward Epstein. San Francisco Chronicle. March 23, 2002.
^ "Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003". United States Department of Defense: News Transcript. April 19, 2004.
^ "New Study Finds: 11,000 to 15,000 Killed in Iraq War; 30 Percent are Non-combatants". Project on Defense Alternatives. Press release. Oct. 20, 2003.
^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives Research Monograph #8. Carl Conetta. October 20, 2003.
- ^ a b c "A dossier of civilian casualties 2003-2005"PDF (650 KiB). Iraq Body Count project. Report covers from March 20, 2003 to March 19, 2005, based on data available by June 14, 2005.
^ "Body counts". By Jonathan Steele. The Guardian. May 28, 2003.
^ "Decrepit healthcare adds to toll in Iraq". Louise Roug, Los Angeles Times, November 11, 2006.
^ George W. Bush, "President Discusses War on Terror and Upcoming Iraqi Elections ". White House transcript. Dec. 12, 2005. Says 30,000 Iraqi dead.
^ "Bush: Iraqi democracy making progress".
CNN. Dec. 12, 2005. "I would say 30,000, more or less, have died as a
result of the initial incursion and the ongoing violence against
Iraqis," Bush said. CNN writes: "White House spokesman Scott McClellan later said Bush was basing his statement on media reports, 'not an official government estimate.' "
^ "Iraqi Death Toll Exceeded 34,000 in '06, U.N. Says". By Sabrina Tavernise. New York Times. Jan. 17, 2007.
^ "Bruised and battered: Iraqi toll crosses 16000 in '06". By the Associated Press. The Indian Express. Jan. 3, 2007.
- ^ a b c "Iraq civilian deaths hit new record". By Alastair Macdonald. The Australian. Jan. 2, 2007.
^ Iraq Living Conditions Survey 2004. United Nations Development Programme.
^ "IRAQ: Civilian Deaths Massive by Any Measure". By Haider Rizvi. January 11, 2008. Inter Press Service News Agency.
^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. Sept. 16, 2007. The Observer (UK).
- ^ a b "The Media Ignore Credible Poll Revealing 1.2 Million Violent Deaths In Iraq". Sept. 18, 2007. MediaLens.
^ "Iraq poll 2007: In graphics". BBC News. March 19, 2007.
^ "Voices From Iraq 2007: Ebbing Hope in a Landscape of Loss". By Gary Langer. March 19, 2007. ABC News.
- ^ a b c ABC News/USA Today/BBC/ARD Poll. March 19, 2007. Detailed results with tables, charts, and graphs.
^ "Iraq Poll 2007". D3 Systems poll (Feb. 25 to March 5, 2007) for BBC, ABC News, ARD German TV and USA Today.
^ "Official: 150,000 Iraqis Killed Since 2003". CBS News. November 9, 2006.
- ^ a b c "Iraqi Official: 150,000 Civilians Dead". Washington Post. Steven R. Hurst. Nov. 10, 2006.
- ^ a b "One-Day Toll in Iraq Combat Is Highest for U.S. in Months". By Ellen Knickmeyer. Washington Post. Oct. 19, 2006.
^ Iraqi deaths survey 'was robust'. By Owen Bennett-Jones. BBC. 26 March 2007.
^ "Critics say 600,000 Iraqi dead doesn't tally. But pollsters defend methods used in Johns Hopkins study". By Anna Badkhen. San Francisco Chronicle. Oct. 12, 2006.
^ "Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey"PDF (263 KiB). By Les Roberts, Riyadh Lafta, Richard Garfield, Jamal Khudhairi, and Gilbert Burnham. The Lancet, October 29, 2004. (hosted by zmag.org).
^ "Study puts Iraqi toll at 100,000", CNN, 2004-10-29. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
^ Wanniski, Jude. "Civilian War Deaths in Iraq", August 21, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
^ Janabi, Ahmed. "Iraqi group: Civilian toll over 37,000", Al Jazeera, 2004-07-31.
^ "Iraq Body Count - Media Lens responds". BBC. April 28, 2006.
^ Fuller, David. (28 April 2006) "Virtual war follows Iraq conflict". BBC Newsnight
- ^ a b "Year Four: Simply the worst". Press Release 15, Iraq Body Count.
^ "Billboarding the Iraq disaster". By Anthony Arnove. Asia Times. March 20, 2007.
^ "Conflict in Iraq. Iraq refugee crisis exploding. 40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation". By Carolyn Lochhead, Jan. 16, 2007. San Francisco Chronicle.
^ "Iraq refugees find no refuge in America." By Ann McFeatters. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 25, 2007.
^ US in Iraq for 'another 50 years', The Australian, June 2, 2007
^ "Civilian, insurgent deaths hard to tally". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept. 8, 2004.
^ "Al Qaeda Leader: Over 4,000 Foreign Insurgents Killed in Iraq". Associated Press. Sept. 28, 2006.
^ Iraq Index. Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq. Brookings Institution. For the latest total of Iraqi police and military killed see page 8 of the most recent Iraq Index PDF file linked there.
^ iCasualties: OIF Iraqi Deaths. An icasualties.org breakdown of deaths in Iraq. See the ISF (Iraqi Security Forces) column.
^ State Violence in Guatemala, 1960-1996: A Quantitative Reflection.. 1999 book by Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.
^ "Chapter 7: Reporting the Violence". From 1999 book. By Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.
^ "List of figures". From 1999 book. By Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.
^ "Baghdad is a city that reeks with the stench of the dead". By Robert Fisk. The Independent. July 28, 2004.
^ Stephen Soldz. "When Promoting Truth Obscures the Truth: More on Iraqi Body Count and Iraqi Deaths". ZNet, February 5, 2006.
^ "War's Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000". Louise Roug and Doug Smith. Los Angeles Times. June 25, 2006.
^ "IBC response to the Lancet study estimating '100,000' Iraqi deaths". November 7, 2004 press release. Iraq Body Count project. All IBC press releases: 
^ Iraq Body Count
- ^ a b c "5,500 Iraqis Killed, Morgue Records Show". By Daniel Cooney. Associated Press. May 23, 2004. Article is here also.
^ "Aid Worker Uncovered America's Secret Tally of Iraqi Civilian Deaths". By Andrew Buncombe. The Independent. April 20, 2005.
- ^ a b c "Study Says Violence in Iraq Has Been Underreported". Jonathan S. Landay. McClatchy Newspapers. Dec. 7, 2006.
^ iCasualties: OIF US Fatalities by month. At iCasualties.org
^ U.S. Casualties in Iraq. At GlobalSecurity.org
^ "British Casualty Monitor: Tracking the war in Iraq"
^ "In Iraq, fewer killed, more are wounded". By Brad Knickerbocker. Christian Science Monitor. August 29, 2006.
^ Is an Armament Sickening U.S. Soldiers?. Associated Press (2006-08-12). Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
^ "Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care".
By Charles W. Hoge, M.D., Carl A. Castro, Ph.D., Stephen C. Messer,
Ph.D., Dennis McGurk, Ph.D., Dave I. Cotting, Ph.D., and Robert L.
Koffman, M.D., M.P.H.. The New England Journal of Medicine. July 1, 2004.
^ ePluribus Media. PTSD Timeline. Database of reported OEF/OIF cases.
^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 4 Oct 2004. The United Kingdom Parliament.
^ "Military deaths in Iraq exceed Sept. 11 toll of 2,973". By Amy Westfeldt of Associated Press. Newsday. Dec. 27, 2006.
^ "Dead Men Walking. What sort of future do brain-injured Iraq veterans face?". By Michael Mason. Discover. Feb. 22, 2007.
^ "20,000 vets' brain injuries not listed in Pentagon tally". By Gregg Zoroya. November 22, 2007. USA Today.
^ "Casualty of War: Mental Health". By Claudia Wallis. Time magazine. March 12, 2007.
^ "Army Report Reveals 121 Suspected Suicides Among Soldiers in 2007, 20 Percent Increase Over 2006". January 31, 2008. Fox News.
 External links and references
(Additional links not found in the 2 reference sections higher up.)
U.S. military casualties only
"Faces of the Fallen", Washington Post database of all U.S. service-member casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)
Statistical Summary: America's Major Wars (does not include Iraq War), cwc.lsu.edu
"A Look At Those Who Died in Iraq", New York Times interactive
U.S. Military Casualties, United States Department of Defense
Timeline: US losses in Iraq since 1 May 2003, BBC News, last updated 5 May 2004
"Honor the Fallen", database of U.S. troops killed in OIF and OEF
"U.S. Military Deaths in Bush's Iraq Quagmire", chart
U.S. deaths in Vietnam and Iraq, comparative graph of casualties from beginning of conflicts, www.lies.com
U.S. Casualties in Iraq, globalsecurity.org
U.S. Military Personnel Wounded in Iraq & Afghanistan: A Running Log.
"One-Day Toll in Iraq Combat Is Highest for U.S. in Months", Washington Post. October 19, 2006.
"U.S. Casualties of War As Announced By The Department of Defense 2003-2007". A list of U.S. military casualties by date order beginning 2003 and updated daily.
Coalition (including U.S. and contractors) casualties only
Iraqi casualties only
General and miscellaneous