Eco Mann | 5 Apr 01:02 2008
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MMM. Adrianne Curry to host MPP's party at the Playboy Mansion


Remember Martin Luther King (MLK). The drug war created the astronomical black incarceration rate in the USA:
http://november.org/graphs/RacePrison.gif
http://www.geocities.com/tents444/charts5.htm
http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/y/majority.htm
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts
MLK was assassinated April 4, 1968. 40 years ago. He was killed during a period in which he tried to stop a war that drained American resources away from economic justice in the USA.  Sound familiar?


---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Marijuana Policy Project <rob-b+qwPKsG0QE@public.gmane.org>
Date: Fri, Apr 4, 2008 at 1:19 PM
Subject: Adrianne Curry to host MPP's party at the Playboy Mansion
To: brothnine-Re5JQEeQqe8AvxtiuMwx3w@public.gmane.org


Marijuana Policy Project Alert April 4, 2008

Dear Eco Man:

I'm excited to announce that reality TV superstar and fashion model Adrianne Curry is slated to host MPP's third annual party at the Playboy Mansion in Los Angeles on June 12. This year's party is quickly shaping up to be our best yet.


MPP VIP advisory board member Adrianne Curry

Please visit www.mpp.org/playboy to purchase your tickets today, since the price will soon increase.  (The ticket price is $850 now but will jump to $1,000 on May 13.)

Adrianne attended our party at the Playboy Mansion last year and, shortly afterwards, joined our VIP advisory board. She has since been an outspoken advocate for marijuana policy reform. She is married to Christopher Knight (Peter Brady from "The Brady Bunch"), and together they star in the extremely popular VH1 reality television show "My Fair Brady."

I hope you'll join me, Adrianne, and other celebrities and supporters of marijuana policy reform at our party at the Playboy Mansion: Buy your tickets today.

Party-goers will get to explore the Playboy Mansion's grotto, grounds, and exotic zoo. Only a lucky few have seen the inside of the grotto, which includes three hot tubs and cushion love seats built into the stone walls.

Plus, an array of exclusive art, famous photographs, and celebrity memorabilia will be available for purchase at the event via live and silent auctions.

I look forward to seeing you at the Mansion on June 12!

Cheers,

Rob Kampia
Executive Director
Marijuana Policy Project
Washington, D.C.

P.S. As I've mentioned in previous alerts, a major philanthropist has committed to match the first $3.0 million that MPP can raise from the rest of the planet in 2008. This means that your ticket purchase will be doubled.

P.P.S. You can opt out of receiving fundraising mentions in the e-mail alerts I send you in 2008 by visiting www.mpp.org/2008optoutpreference at your convenience.

Raised in '08
$563,442
Goal in '08
$3,000,000

MPP will be able to tackle all of the projects in our 2008 strategic plan if you and other allies are generous enough to fund our work.

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We are required by federal law to tell you that any donations you make to MPP may be used for political purposes, such as supporting or opposing candidates for federal office.

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Peace comes with justice,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts
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Eco Mann | 7 Apr 09:56 2008
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MMM. Elephant Paints Self Portrait. YouTube video



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LHoyB81LnE  - Astonishing. I have long thought animals were very conscious beings. Most people who have hung around cats or dogs know this. And we hear that dolphins are very smart. But I had no idea just how smart animals are. The understanding of perspective and proportionality is incredible. The flower painted at the end is great too. Why do we keep animals in prisons called zoos?


Elephant Paints Portrait

Check out this video on YouTube in which an elephant paints its own 'self portrait.'


====


The above YouTube video was linked from the "Coast to Coast AM" radio show home page:
http://www.coasttocoastam.com




Slow down Global Warming! Save the rain forests. Stop the extinction of the great apes and the whales!



 
Most of the world's problems could be solved by lowering the Earth's population over time. One child per woman would achieve this. Nations with high population density (as in China, India, South Korea, Japan, Belgium, Holland, Germany, England) are experiencing severe problems.
In the meantime the citizens of most nations would do better, and be happier, if they had universal single-payer healthcare, and if economies were made livable and sustainable via graduated taxation and lower overall taxes.


----



Cheap renewable energy: Wiki. News. Solar: Cheap photovoltaic solar power is here now, when compared to the true cost of fossil fuels (with costs of subsidies, acid rain, pollution, healthcare, global warming). See world chart.
$720 million daily cost of Iraq War. Casualties.

Click the above image for more info, and for simple code that you can cut and paste into the HTML of your website. See also this detailed counter explanation


----


The November Coalition has put these charts below in the public domain.
http://www.november.org/graphs
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts




----


Cheers,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


-----


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Eco Mann | 8 Apr 07:03 2008
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MMM. Wave of Drug Killings Is Linked to Thai Police. New York Times.


Thailand has restarted its crackdown on drugs. See Google News and Wikipedia:
http://news.google.com/news?q=thailand+drug+war
http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Awikipedia.org+thailand+drug+war

Here below is what happened with the over 2000 killings in 2003.

Quote from New York Times article:

"Since the death of 9-year-old Chakraphan, there have been frequent reports in the Thai press of summary executions and their innocent victims. There was the 16-month-old girl who was shot dead along with her mother, Raiwan Khwanthongyen. There was the pregnant woman, Daranee Tasanawadee, who was killed in front of her two young sons. There was the 8-year-old boy, Jirasak Unthong, who was the only witness to the killing of his parents as they headed home from a temple fair. There was Suwit Baison, 23, a cameraman for a local television station, who fell to his knees in tears in front of Mr. Thaksin and begged for an investigation into the killing of his parents. His st epfather had once been arrested for smoking marijuana, Mr. Suwit said. When the police offered to drop the charge if he would admit to using methamphetamines, he opted instead to pay the $100 fine for marijuana use. Both parents were shot dead as they returned home from the police station on a motorbike. Mr. Suwit said 10 other people in his neighborhood had also been killed after surrendering to the police."


==== New York Times article starts ====


http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9405E7DF1038F93BA35757C0A9659C8B63



April 8, 2003

A Wave of Drug Killings Is Linked to Thai Police

An extraordinary campaign of government-approved killings is under way in Thailand -- a crackdown on drug dealers that has taken as many as 2,000 lives over the past two months, an average of 30 a day.

The death toll -- equal to that of the carnage in East Timor in 1999 -- has drawn outrage from local and foreign human rights groups. It seems particularly shocking in a country where democracy has replaced the coups and strongman rule of past decades.

From the start, the police have disavowed most of the killings, saying they are the work of drug dealers trying to silence informers. Few people here accept that explanation. A variety of other government statements and independent monitoring make it clear that the police are carrying out widespread summary executions.

In rural areas and city slums, residents say they now stay indoors at night for fear of what have become known as ''silent killings.'' The most dangerous thing, they say, is to answer a police summons to respond to an accusation of drug dealing.

''Most of them got killed on the way back from the police office,'' said Sunai Phasuk, a member of an independent human rights group, ForumAsia. ''People found their name on a blacklist, went to the police, then end up dead.'' The Interior Ministry says its lists include 41,914 people around the country who are ''targets for monitoring.''

According to the police, there are rarely any witnesses to the killings. Bodies are often removed without autopsies. Often, they are found with plastic bags of drugs placed neatly by their side. Few homicide arrests have been made.

The official death toll of 2,052, announced by a police spokesman last week, is believed to include a number of other killings carried out under cover of the narcotics crackdown.

When it began at the start of February, the crackdown, ordered by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, had broad public backing. Methamphetamines, trafficked from Myanmar over the old opium routes through the Golden Triangle, are ravaging all sectors of society, from laborers to bankers, young and old.

But the campaign has become less popular as it has taken more innocent lives, and it took the shooting death of a 9-year-old boy just over a month ago to jolt the public into outrage.

The campaign has also drawn criticism from the United Nations as well as from human rights groups. Initially, the prime minister said he would rid Thailand of illicit drugs within three months. Now he says it will take until the end of year.

''The scale of these killings is absolutely appalling,'' said Mike Jendrzejczyk, the Washington director for Asia for Human Rights Watch. ''Thailand's image as a place where the rule of law is respected is clearly under assault.''

He added: ''I think the United States should suspend all assistance to the Thai police until there can be a credible, independent investigation into the killings and the United States takes steps to ensure it is not directly or indirectly complicit in them.''

Mr. Thaksin has brushed aside the criticism, saying, ''The United Nations is not my father.'' He added sarcastically: ''Opponents can gather signatures to back their call for the government to let the drug dealers live happily. Why care about our children?''

Indeed the country's children are at risk in the drug epidemic. The government says 700 million methamphetamine pills are smuggled from Myanmar every year, most of them for use in Thailand. It says three million people use the drug -- which is known here as yaa baa, or ''crazy medicine'' -- including 300,000 people who are addicted, in a population of 63 million.

Officials say dozens of organized crime groups run the drug trade, protected by or run by powerful civilian and military figures. Critics note that the current campaign targeting low-level dealers and traffickers leaves those organizations intact.

Initial surveys by an independent polling concern showed that 90 percent of the public supported the crackdown, even though 40 percent said they were afraid of being falsely accused, and 30 percent said they were afraid of being killed.

Then, just over a month ago, three undercover policemen firing at a getaway car killed the 9-year-old boy, Chakraphan Srisa-ard, with two bullets in the back. The police had just arrested his father for trying to sell them 6,000 pills, and his mother was fleeing for her life with the boy in the back seat.

The killing drew the biggest headlines since the start of the crackdown, and the boy's funeral was widely publicized.

''The war on drugs is getting more violent every day,'' one of his uncles, Chlaermpol Kerdrungruang, told reporters. ''The police kept shooting and shooting at the car. They wanted them to die. Even a child was not spared.''

Among the critics was Jaran Pakdithanakul, secretary to the Supreme Court president. ''What the police said is not credible,'' he said, referring to their claim that someone else shot at the car. ''We must stop these bloodthirsty police officers.''

As public opinion began to turn, officials stopped issuing regular reports of the death toll, and the government appointed a commission to investigate complaints of summary killings. Last week, however, Deputy Attorney General Praphan Naiyakowit, who runs the investigation, said the police had failed to produce any of the reports he had requested.

The killings appear to have continued, though possibly at a somewhat lower rate.

A police spokesman, Pongsapat Pongchaeroen, gave the latest death toll last week, adding that the police had made 46,776 drug-related arrests, had seized 12.51 million methamphetamine pills and had confiscated $14.94 million in property belonging to suspected traffickers.

As with earlier reports, he insisted that most of the victims had been killed by fellow drug dealers. Just 46 had been killed by the police, he said, and all of those killings had been in self-defense. He said six police officers had been killed and 15 wounded.

Since the death of 9-year-old Chakraphan, there have been frequent reports in the Thai press of summary executions and their innocent victims.

There was the 16-month-old girl who was shot dead along with her mother, Raiwan Khwanthongyen. There was the pregnant woman, Daranee Tasanawadee, who was killed in front of her two young sons. There was the 8-year-old boy, Jirasak Unthong, who was the only witness to the killing of his parents as they headed home from a temple fair.

There was Suwit Baison, 23, a cameraman for a local television station, who fell to his knees in tears in front of Mr. Thaksin and begged for an investigation into the killing of his parents.

His stepfather had once been arrested for smoking marijuana, Mr. Suwit said. When the police offered to drop the charge if he would admit to using methamphetamines, he opted instead to pay the $100 fine for marijuana use.

Both parents were shot dead as they returned home from the police station on a motorbike. Mr. Suwit said 10 other people in his neighborhood had also been killed after surrendering to the police.

 


==== end of article ====


---


Cheers and regards,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


---
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Eco Mann | 17 Apr 22:25 2008
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MMM. Bill introduced in Congress to decriminalize marijuana!



---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Marijuana Policy Project <rob-b+qwPKsG0QE@public.gmane.org>
Date: Thu, Apr 17, 2008 at 3:38 PM
Subject: Bill introduced in Congress to decriminalize marijuana!


Marijuana Policy Project Alert April 17, 2008


Today, a bill to eliminate all federal penalties for marijuana possession was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Would you please take one minute to ask your U.S. representative to support this bill? MPP's easy online action system makes it simple — just enter your name and contact info and we'll do the rest.

"The Personal Use of Marijuana by Responsible Adults Act of 2008," introduced by Congressman Barney Frank (D-Mass.), would eliminate the threat of arrest and prison for the possession of up to 3.5 ounces of marijuana and/or the not-for-profit transfer of up to one ounce of marijuana. It would not affect federal laws prohibiting selling marijuana for profit, importing and exporting marijuana, or cultivating marijuana.  It also would not affect any state or local laws and regulations.

Because almost all marijuana arrests are made by local and state police, the primary impact of this federal bill is twofold:  First, it would offer protection to people who are apprehended with marijuana in federal buildings or on federal land (such as national parks); and, second, the bill sends a message to state governments that the federal government is now open to the notion of states reducing their marijuana penalties, too.

This historic legislation comes 36 years after the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse made a similar recommendation to President Richard Nixon, suggesting that he decriminalize small amounts of marijuana.

MPP has worked closely with Congressman Frank's staff over the last year, helping to craft the legislation and build political support for the proposal on Capitol Hill.

Now that the bill has been introduced, members of Congress need to hear from their constituents who want to see it passed. It takes only a minute or two to use MPP's online action system to send a quick note to your member of the House.

Thanks so much for your help.

Sincerely,

Rob Kampia
Executive Director
Marijuana Policy Project
Washington, D.C.

P.S. As I've mentioned in previous alerts, a major philanthropist has committed to match the first $3.0 million that MPP can raise from the rest of the planet in 2008. This means that your donation today will be doubled.

P.P.S. You can opt out of receiving fundraising mentions in the e-mail alerts I send you in 2008 by visiting www.mpp.org/2008optoutpreference at your convenience.

Raised in '08
$654,923
Goal in '08
$3,000,000

MPP will be able to tackle all of the projects in our 2008 strategic plan if you and other allies are generous enough to fund our work.

Popular Links:

 

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We are required by federal law to tell you that any donations you make to MPP may be used for political purposes, such as supporting or opposing candidates for federal office.

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====end of forwarded email====



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Cheers,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


---
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Eco Mann | 18 Apr 04:28 2008
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MMM. AP. Nearly 1 in 5 troops has mental problems after war service. Associated Press.



Hundreds of thousands of Iraqis have died, too.


===Associated Press article begins===

Associated Press. April 17, 2008.
http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080418/ap_on_go_ca_st_pe/troops_mental_health


Nearly 1 in 5 troops has mental problems after war service

By PAULINE JELINEK, Associated Press Writer 

Roughly one in every five U.S. troops who have survived the bombs and other dangers of Iraq and Afghanistan now suffers from major depression or post-traumatic stress, an independent study said Thursday. It estimated the toll at 300,000 or more.

As many or more report possible brain injuries from explosions or other head wounds, said the study, the first major survey from outside the government.

Only about half of those with mental health problems have sought treatment. Even fewer of those with head injuries have seen doctors.

Army Surgeon General Eric Schoomaker said the report, from the Rand Corp., was welcome.

"They're helping us to raise the visibility and the attention that's needed by the American public at large," said Schoomaker, a lieutenant general. "They are making this a national debate."

The researchers said 18.5 percent of current and former service members contacted in a recent survey reported symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress. Based on Pentagon data that more than 1.6 million have deployed to the two wars, the researchers calculated that about 300,000 are suffering mental health problems.

Nineteen percent — or an estimated 320,000 — may have suffered head injuries, the study calculated. Those range from mild concussions to severe, penetrating head wounds.

"There is a major health crisis facing those men and women who have served our nation in Iraq and Afghanistan," said Terri Tanielian, the project's co-leader and a researcher at Rand. "Unless they receive appropriate and effective care for these mental health conditions, there will be long-term consequences for them and for the nation."

The study, the first large-scale, private assessment of its kind, includes a survey of 1,965 service members across the country, from all branches of the armed forces and including those still in the military as well veterans who have completed their service. The Iraq war has been notable for the repeat tours required of many troops, sometimes for longer than a year at a time.

The results of the study appear consistent with mental health reports from within the government, though the Defense Department has not released the number of people it has diagnosed or who are being treated for mental problems.

The Department of Veterans Affairs said this month that its records show about 120,000 who served in the two wars and are no longer in the military have been diagnosed with mental health problems. Of those, about 60,000 are suffering from post-traumatic stress, and depression runs a close second.

Veterans Affairs is responsible for care of service members after they have leave the military. The Defense Department covers active duty and reservist needs.

The lack of numbers from the Pentagon was one motivation for the Rand study, Tanielian said in an interview.

The most prominent and detailed Pentagon study on the military's mental health that is released regularly to the public is the Army's survey of soldiers, taken annually at the battle zones since 2003.

The most recent one, last fall, found 18.2 percent of Army soldiers suffered mental health problems such as depression, anxiety or acute stress in 2007, compared with 20.5 percent the previous year.

Other studies have variously estimated that 10 percent to 20 percent of troops had symptoms of mental health problems.

Col. Loree Sutton, who heads a new Pentagon center on brain injury, said the Rand study will add to the work defense officials are doing. That includes researching best practices used inside the military and out, improving and expanding training and prevention programs, adding mental health staff and trying to change a military culture in which many troops are afraid or embarrassed to get mental health treatment.

"We've got to get the word out that seeking help is a sign of strength," Sutton said.

She said officials have been working to add thousands more mental health professionals to help the uniformed psychiatrists, psychologists and others struggling to meet the wartime demands of troops and their families. Across the services, officials are trying to hire over 1,000 additional staff. Also, companies providing health care by contract to the Pentagon have added over 3,000 in the past year, and the U.S. Public Health Service has provided some 200, she said. Veterans Affairs has added some 3,800 professionals in the past couple of years, officials there said.

In other survey results:

_About 7 percent of those polled reported both a probable brain injury and current post-traumatic stress or major depression.

_Rates of post-traumatic stress and major depression were highest among women and reservists.

_About 53 percent of service members with post-traumatic stress or depression sought help over the past year, and 43 percent reported being evaluated by a physician for their head injuries at some time.

_They gave various reasons for not getting help, including that they worried about the side effects of medication, they believed family and friends could help them with the problem, or they feared seeking care might damage their careers.

The Army's own warfront survey found the stigma associated with getting help has been decreasing slowly but steadily in recent years.

Thursday's report was titled "Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery." It was sponsored by a grant from the California Community Foundation and done by researchers from Rand Health and the Rand National Security Research Division. The division also has done work under contracts with the Pentagon and other defense agencies as well as allied foreign governments and foundations.

___

On the Net:

Rand Corporation: http://www.rand.org

Army studies: http://www.armymedicine.army.mil

Copyright © 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. The information contained in the AP News report may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press.

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====end of article===


---


Cheers,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


---
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Eco Mann | 18 Apr 04:46 2008
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MMM. Casualties of the Iraq War. Charts, article. Wikipedia.



====Wikipedia article begins====


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_the_Iraq_War

Casualties of the Iraq War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
[show]
v  d  e
Iraq War

Casualties of the conflict in Iraq since 2003 (beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and continuing with the ensuing 2003 occupation of Iraq coalition presence as well as the activities of the various armed groups operating in the country) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of casualties varies greatly.

The table below summarizes the Iraq War casualty surveys. See the rest of the article for more detailed info.

Survey Iraqi deaths March 2003 to...
Iraqi Health Ministry survey 151,000 violent deaths out of 400,000 excess deaths due to the war. June 2006
Lancet survey 601,027 violent deaths out of 654,965 excess deaths. June 2006
Opinion Research Business survey 1,033,000 violent deaths as a result of the conflict. August 2007

For troops in the U.S.-led multinational coalition, the death toll is carefully tracked and updated daily, and the names and photographs of those killed in action as well as in accidents have been published widely. Regarding the Iraqis, however, information on both military and civilian casualties is both less accurate and less reliable. Given the political significance of these figures and the varied agendas of all parties, no source can be considered free of bias. Estimates of casualty levels are available from reporters on the scene, from officials of involved organizations, and from groups that summarize information on incidents reported in the news media.

The word "casualties" in its most general sense includes the injured as well as the dead. Accounts of the number of coalition wounded vary widely, partly because it is not obvious what should be counted: should only those injuries serious enough to put a soldier out of commission be included? Do illnesses or injuries caused by accidents count, or should the focus be restricted to wounds caused by hostile engagement? Sources using different definitions may arrive at very different numbers, and sometimes the precise definition is not clearly specified. As for the Iraqis, where even the death toll has only been very roughly estimated, it appears that no one has attempted to count the wounded.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Overview

Summary of casualties of the Iraq War.

Possible estimates on the number of people killed in the invasion and occupation of Iraq vary widely,[1] and are highly disputed. Estimates of casualties below include both the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the following Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present.

[edit] Iraqi deaths

Iraqi Health Ministry casualty survey for the World Health Organization.[2] In January 2008 the Iraqi health minister, Dr Salih Mahdi Motlab Al-Hasanawi, reported the results of the "Iraq Family Health Survey" of 9,345 households across Iraq which was carried out in 2006 and 2007. It estimated 151,000 violence-related Iraqi deaths (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) from March 2003 through June 2006. Employees of the Iraqi Health Ministry carried out the survey.[3][4][5] The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine.[6]

Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll conducted August 12-19, 2007 estimated 1,033,000 violent deaths due to the Iraq War. The range given was 946,000 to 1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household (living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq War. 22% of the respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that "48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9% from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from another blast/ordnance."[7][8][9][10][11]

The Iraq Body Count (IBC) figure of 80,419 to 87,834 civilian deaths reported in English-language media (including Arabic media translated into English) up to 10 January 2008 includes civilian deaths due to coalition and insurgent military action, sectarian violence and increased criminal violence. The IBC site states: "it should be noted that many deaths will likely go unreported or unrecorded by officials and media."[12] For the 4th year of the war between 20 March 2006 and 16 March 2007 the Iraq Body Count reported approximately 26,540 civilian deaths.[13]

The United Nations reported that 34,452 violent deaths occurred in 2006, based on data from morgues, hospitals, and municipal authorities across Iraq.[14]

The Lancet study's figure of 654,965 excess deaths through the end of June 2006 is based on household survey data. The estimate is for all excess violent and nonviolent deaths. That also includes those due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.. 601,027 deaths (range of 426,369 to 793,663 using a 95% confidence interval) were estimated to be due to violence. 31% of those were attributed to the Coalition, 24% to others, 46% unknown. The causes of violent deaths were gunshot (56%), car bomb (13%), other explosion/ordnance (14%), air strike (13%), accident (2%), unknown (2%). A copy of a death certificate was available for a high proportion of the reported deaths (92 per cent of those households asked to produce one).[15][16][17]

Concerning war-related deaths (civilian and non-civilian), and deaths from criminal gangs, Iraq's Health Minister Ali al-Shemari said that since the March 2003 invasion between 100,000-150,000 Iraqis had been killed.[18] "Al-Shemari said on Thursday [Nov. 9, 2006] that he based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought to morgues and hospitals – though such a calculation would come out closer to 130,000 in total."[19]

Los Angeles Times: "At least 50,000 Iraqis have died violently"—as of June 2006. "Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but not counted because of serious lapses in recording deaths. ... The Los Angeles Times attempted to reach a comprehensive figure by obtaining statistics from the Baghdad morgue and the Health Ministry and checking those numbers against a sampling of local health departments for possible undercounts."[20]

[edit] Iraqi Security Forces (aligned with Coalition)

2003-2004: 1,300 police[21] & 453 soldiers killed[22][23][24][25][26][27]

[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]
2005: 1,497 police & 1,082 soldiers killed[48][49][50]
2006: 1,481 police & 627 soldiers killed[51]
2007: 2,017 police & 432 soldiers killed[52]
2008: 195 police & 98 soldiers[53]
Total: 6,490 police and 3,530 soldiers killed

[edit] Media and aid workers

112 journalists, 40 media support workers, and 95 aid workers have been killed. Totals as listed at source pages on 25 September 2007.[54][55][56][57]

[edit] U.S. armed forces

Graph of monthly deaths of U.S. military in Iraq.[58]

4,000 dead as of March 2008. As of March 2008 there were 8,914 wounded requiring medical air transport. 20,416 wounded did not require medical air transport. Of all the wounded 13,109 were unable to return to duty within 72 hours. Medical air transport was required for an additional 8,273 for non-hostile injuries, and for 23,052 for diseases or other medical conditions. [59][60][61][62]

[edit] Coalition deaths by hostile fire

As of January 10, 2008 3,431 of the 4,228 total coalition military deaths were by hostile fire. 3,201 of the 3,921 total U.S. deaths were by hostile fire.[63][64]

[edit] Armed forces of other coalition countries

See Multinational force in Iraq.

As of March 24, 2008 there were 311 total deaths. Breakdown: Australia 2. Bulgaria 13. Czech Republic 1. Denmark 7. El Salvador 5. Estonia 2. Fiji 1. Georgia 1. Hungary 1. Italy 33. Kazakhstan 1. Latvia 3. Netherlands 2. Poland 23. Romania 3. Slovakia 4. South Korea 1. Spain 11. Thailand 2. Ukraine 18. United Kingdom 177. [61][65][59]

[edit] Contractors

Contractors. At least 1,016 deaths between March 2003 and January 2008. 236 of those are from the USA.[66][67][68][69][70] Contractors are "Americans, Iraqis and workers from more than three dozen other countries."[71] 10,569 wounded or injured.[66] Contractors "cook meals, do laundry, repair infrastructure, translate documents, analyze intelligence, guard prisoners, protect military convoys, deliver water in the heavily fortified Green Zone and stand sentry at buildings - often highly dangerous duties almost identical to those performed by many U.S. troops."[72] 182,000 employees of U.S.-government-funded contractors and subcontractors (118,000 Iraqi, 43,000 Other, 21,000 U.S.).[73]
Among other confirmed contractors killed are: 47 British, 34 Turkish, 23 South African, 20 Fijian, 19 Nepali, 14 Filipino, 7 Pakistani, 6 Bulgarian, 6 Jordanian, 5 Australian, 5 Canadian, 5 Egyptian, 4 Lebanese, 4 New Zealander, 4 Russian, 4 South Korean, 3 Croatian, 3 French, 3 German, 3 Macedonian, 3 Polish, 2 Bosnian, 2 Finnish, 2 Hungarian, 2 Indian, 1 Brazilian, 1 Colombian, 1 Japanese, 1 Czech, 1 Danish, 1 Dutch, 1 Guam, 1 Honduran, 1 Indonesian, 1 Italian, 1 Kuwaiti, 1 Portuguese, 1 Romanian, 1 Somali, 1 Swedish, 1 Syrian, 1 Ukrainian. The rest are presumed to be Iraqi.[67]

[edit] Additional statistics

Overview of casualties by type (see the rest of the article below for more info)
Dead
  • Iraqis:
  • Insurgents
  • Deadliest single insurgent bombings:[74]
  • Other deadly days:
    • Nov. 23, 2006 (281 killed) and April 18, 2007 (233 killed):
      • "4 bombings in Baghdad kill at least 183. ... Nationwide, the number of people killed or found dead on Wednesday [April 18, 2007] was 233, which was the second deadliest day in Iraq since The Associated Press began keeping records in May 2005. Five car bombings, mortar rounds and other attacks killed 281 people across Iraq on Nov. 23, 2006, according to the AP count."[75]
Graph of monthly wounded in action of U.S. military personnel in Iraq.[58]
Wounded in action
  • As of January 12, 2007, 500 U.S. troops have undergone amputations due to the Iraq War. Toes and fingers aren't counted.[76]
  • As of September 30, 2006, 725 American troops have had limbs amputated from wounds received in Iraq and Afghanistan.[77]
  • A 2006 study by Walter Reed Medical Center, which serves more critically injured soldiers than most VA hospitals, concluded that 62 percent of patients there had suffered a brain injury.[78]
  • In March 2003, U.S. military personnel were wounded in action at a rate averaging about 350 per month. As of September 2007, this rate has increased to about 675 per month.[58]
Injured/fallen ill
  • U.S. military: number unknown.
    • An October 18, 2005 USA Today article reports:
      • "More than one in four U.S. troops have come home from the Iraq war with health problems that require medical or mental health treatment, according to the Pentagon's first detailed screening of servicemembers leaving a war zone."[79]
  • Iraqi combatants: number unknown
Refugees
  • As of November 4, 2006, the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 1.6 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[80]

[edit] Contractor casualties

Their status as civilian is controversial. They are employees of U.S. government contractors and subcontractors, private military contractors, U.S. Department of Defense, etc.. The contractors come from many nations including Iraq and the USA.

A July 4, 2007 Los Angeles Times article reports:

"More than 180,000 civilians - including Americans, foreigners and Iraqis - are working in Iraq under U.S. contracts, according to State and Defense department figures obtained by the Los Angeles Times. ...

"The numbers include at least 21,000 Americans, 43,000 foreign contractors and about 118,000 Iraqis - all employed in Iraq by U.S. tax dollars, according to the most recent government data."[73]

A July 3, 2007 Reuters article reports:

"The department said it had recorded 990 deaths - 917 in Iraq and 73 in Afghanistan - by the end of March. Since then, according to incident logs tallied by Reuters in Baghdad and Kabul, at least 16 contractors have died in Iraq and two in Afghanistan. ...

"The Labor Department's statistics put the number of wounded in Iraq between March 1, 2003 and March 31, 2007 as 10,569. The corresponding figure for Afghanistan, from September 2001 to March 2007, is 2,428. ...

"Joseph McDermott, the Assistant Inspector General for Iraq, quoted Labor Department statistics as saying that of 900-plus contractors killed by the end of April, 224 were U.S. citizens."[66]

From a New York Times article published May 19, 2007:

"At least 146 contract workers were killed in Iraq in the first three months of the year, by far the highest number for any quarter since the war began in March 2003, according to the Labor Department, which processes death and injury claims for those working as United States government contractors in Iraq.[71]

The April 30, 2007 quarterly report to Congress of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction states:

"Since Iraq reconstruction began, 916 death claims for civilian contractors working on U.S.-funded projects in Iraq have been filed. In the quarter ending March 31, 2007, the Department of Labor reported 146 new death claims. DoS reports that 16 U.S. civilians died in Iraq this quarter. Since the beginning of the U.S. reconstruction effort, 224 U.S. civilians have died in Iraq."[68][69][70]

A February 23, 2007 Associated Press article reports that there are 120,000 contractors. It states that through the end of 2006 there have been 769 deaths and "3,367 injuries serious enough to require four or more days off the job."[81]

A January 28, 2007 Houston Chronicle article[82] reports that the Pentagon estimates around 100,000 contractors are currently in Iraq, and that the Pentagon does not track contractor deaths. The article reports: "Halliburton's KBR is the largest military contractor operating in Iraq, with more than 50,000 employees and subcontractors working there, as well as in Kuwait and Afghanistan."

The article reports from Labor Department information that more than 770 civilian contractors of U.S.-based companies in Iraq died between March 2003 and Dec. 31, 2006. 7,761 have been injured in Iraq. "How many of these civilian-contractor casualties were American citizens is unknown. Labor officials say they cannot provide a breakdown by nationality."

The article also reports:

The Labor Department has these numbers because it tracks workers' compensation claims by injured workers or families of slain contractors under the federal Defense Base Act. "Using employee time lost is a kind of a weird way to track casualties," Singer noted. "But it's part of the bizarre nature of this industry and the way it's been used in Iraq." Still, the Labor Department figures don't tell the full story.

An October 10, 2006 Reuters article[83] reports, "Their number in Iraq is estimated at up to 100,000, from highly-trained former special forces soldiers to drivers, cooks, mechanics, plumbers, translators, electricians and laundry workers and other support personnel."

An April 2, 2004 Boston Globe article[84] reports: "Just how much the growing security burden in Iraq is costing US taxpayers is hard to gauge because few reconstruction contracts are made public and there is no official estimate of how many security specialists are active there. Analysts estimate that corporations have some 30,000 to 40,000 workers in Iraq"

Concerning the number of security-related contractors an April 19, 2004 New York Times article[85] states: "But more and more, they give the appearance of private, for-profit militias — by several estimates, a force of roughly 20,000 on top of an American military presence of 130,000.

That article also reports: "Sorting out lines of authority and communication can be complex. Many security guards are hired as 'independent contractors' by companies that, in turn, are sub-contractors of larger security companies, which are themselves subcontractors of a prime contractor, which may have been hired by a United States agency."

An April 13, 2004 Robert Fisk article[86] reports: "At least 18 000 mercenaries, many of them tasked to protect US troops and personnel, are now believed to be in Iraq."

The article reported: "At least 80 foreign mercenaries - security guards recruited from the United States, Europe and South Africa and working for American companies - have been killed in the past eight days in Iraq." The article noted that this was more than the roughly 70 coalition troops who were killed in the same period.

[edit] Iraqi invasion casualties

Before the Iraq War, in March 2002 in Afghanistan at a news conference at Bagram Air Base, U.S. General Tommy Franks had famously said, "we don't do body counts."[87][88]

This Iraqi soldier was killed in April, 2003 by United States Marines.

General Tommy Franks reportedly estimated soon after the invasion that there had been 30,000 Iraqi casualties as of April 9, 2003.[89] That number comes from the transcript of an October 2003 interview of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld by Bob Woodward. They were discussing a number reported by the Washington Post. But neither could remember the number clearly, nor whether it was just for deaths, or both deaths and wounded.

An October 20, 2003 study[90][91] by the Project on Defense Alternatives at Commonwealth Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), stated that for March 19, 2003 to April 30, 2003, "Based on the analysis that follows we estimate that the 2003 Iraq war produced between 7,600 and 10,800 Iraqi combatant fatalities."

The study also stated: "Our analysis of the evidence leads to the conclusion that between 10,800 and 15,100 Iraqis were killed in the war. Of these, between 3,200 and 4,300 were noncombatants -- that is: civilians who did not take up arms."

The study explained that to arrive at these numbers, they had adjusted the underlying incident reports from the field by reducing each count by anywhere from 20% to 60%, based on their own reliability assessments, in order to "control for casualty inflation -- a prevalent form of bias."

The study author Carl Conetta reported: "All told, more than 40,000 Iraqis were killed or injured,"

The Iraq Body Count project documented a higher number of civilian deaths up to the end of the major combat phase (May 1, 2003). In a 2005 report[92] using updated info the (IBC) reported that 7,299 civilians are documented to have been killed, primarily by US air and ground forces. There were 17,338 civilian injuries inflicted up to May 1, 2003. The IBC says their figures are likely underestimates because: "it should be noted that many deaths will likely go unreported or unrecorded by officials and media."[12]

A May 28, 2003 Guardian article reported "Extrapolating from the death-rates of between 3% and 10% found in the units around Baghdad, one reaches a toll of between 13,500 and 45,000 dead among troops and paramilitaries.[93]

[edit] Iraqi Healthcare deterioration

A November 11, 2006 Los Angeles Times article[94] reports:

The [Iraq] nation's health has deteriorated to a level not seen since the 1950s, said Joseph Chamie, former director of the U.N. Population Division and an Iraq specialist. "They were at the forefront", he said, referring to healthcare just before the 1991 Persian Gulf War. "Now they're looking more and more like a country in sub-Saharan Africa."

A November 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune article reported what Iraq's Health Minister, Ali al-Shemari, said about the issue:

Al-Shemari said Iraq needed at least 10 years to rebuild its infrastructure, and that the medical situation in the country was "gloomy." There was a shortage of medical supplies, which sometimes took months to reach the country from abroad, while roadblocks prevented people from getting to hospitals, he said. No hospital has been built in Iraq since 1983, and the country's 15,000 available hospital beds were well short of the 80,000 beds needed. The minister also noted that many doctors had left the country. "We need help from anybody," Al-Shemari said.[18]

[edit] Total Iraqi casualties

Estimates of the total number of Iraqi war-related deaths are highly disputed. National Public Radio has a bar chart with various estimates.[1]

[edit] Various estimates

In December 2005 President Bush said there were 30,000 Iraqi dead. White House spokesman Scott McClellan later said it was "not an official government estimate", and was based on media reports.[95][96]

The United Nations reported that 34,452 violent civilian deaths occurred in 2006, based on data from morgues, hospitals, and municipal authorities across Iraq.[97]

For 2006 a January 2, 2007 Associated Press article reports: "The tabulation by the Iraqi ministries of Health, Defence and Interior, showed that 14,298 civilians, 1,348 police and 627 soldiers had been killed in the violence that raged across the country last year. The Associated Press figure, gleaned from daily news reports from Baghdad, arrived at a total of 13,738 deaths."[98]The Australian reports in a January 2, 2007 article: "A figure of 3700 civilian deaths in October [2006], the latest tally given by the UN based on data from the Health Ministry and the Baghdad morgue, was branded exaggerated by the Iraqi Government."[99] Iraqi government estimates include "people killed in bombings and shootings but not deaths classed as 'criminal'." Also, they "include no deaths among the many civilians wounded in attacks who may die later from wounds. Nor do they include many people kidnapped whose fate remains unknown."[99]

A June 25, 2006 Los Angeles Times article, "War's Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000",[20] reported that their estimate of violent deaths consisted "mostly of civilians" but probably also included security forces and insurgents. It added that, "Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but not counted because of serious lapses in recording deaths in the chaotic first year after the invasion, when there was no functioning Iraqi government, and continued spotty reporting nationwide since." Here is how the Times got their number: "The Baghdad morgue received 30,204 bodies from 2003 through mid-2006, while the Health Ministry said it had documented 18,933 deaths from 'military clashes' and 'terrorist attacks' from April 5, 2004, to June 1, 2006. Together, the toll reaches 49,137. However, samples obtained from local health departments in other provinces show an undercount that brings the total well beyond 50,000. The figure also does not include deaths outside Baghdad in the first year of the invasion."

Another study was commissioned by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), called the Iraq Living Conditions Survey (ILCS), which sampled almost 22,000 households across all Iraqi provinces. It estimated 24,000 war-related violent deaths by May 2004 (with a 95 percent confidence interval from 18,000 to 29,000). This study also did not attempt to measure what portion of its estimate was made up of civilians. It would include Iraqi military killed during the invasion, as well as "insurgents" or other fighters thereafter.[100] This study has been criticized for various reasons. For more info see the section in Lancet surveys of Iraq War casualties that compares the Lancet and UNDP ILCS studies.

[edit] Iraqi Health Ministry/WHO survey

Here follows additional info beyond that found in the "Iraqi deaths" part of the Overview section higher up.

Les Roberts, co-author of the Lancet study, said Friday, January 10, 2008:

"The NEJM article found a doubling of mortality after the invasion, we found a 2.4-fold increase. Thus, we roughly agree on the number of excess deaths. The big difference is that we found almost all the increase from violence, they found one-third of the increase from violence. ..."

"It is likely that people would be unwilling to admit violent deaths to the study workers who were government employees. ..."

"Finally, their data suggests one-sixth of deaths over the occupation through June 2006 were from violence. Our data suggests a majority of deaths were from violence. The morgue and graveyard data I have seen is more in keeping with our results." [101]

[edit] ORB survey of Iraqi war deaths in August 2007

A September 14, 2007 estimate by ORB (Opinion Research Business), an independent British polling agency, suggests that the total Iraqi violent death toll due to the Iraq War since the US-led invasion is in excess of 1.2 million (1,220,580). Although higher than the 2006 Lancet estimate through June 2006, these results, which were based on a survey of 1499 adults in Iraq from August 12-19, 2007, are more or less consistent with the figures that were published in the Lancet study.[8][20][102][103]

On 28 January 2008, ORB published an update based on additional work carried out in rural areas of Iraq. Some 600 additional interviews were undertaken and as a result of this the death estimate was revised to 1,033,000 with a given range of 946,000 to 1,120,000.[7]

Participants of the ORB survey were asked the following question:

"How many members of your household, if any, have died as a result of the conflict in Iraq since 2003 (ie as a result of violence rather than a natural death such as old age)? Please note that I mean those who were actually living under your roof."

The results were

Number of deaths

in household

Percent

of responders

None 78%
One 16%
Two 5%
Three 1%
Four or more 0.002%

[edit] D3 Systems poll in early 2007

From Feb. 25 to March 5, 2007 D3 Systems [4] conducted a poll for BBC, ABC News, ARD German TV and USA Today.[104][105][106][107] The methodology was described thusly: "This poll for ABC News, USA Today, the BBC and ARD was conducted Feb. 25-March 5, 2007, through in-person interviews with a random national sample of 2,212 Iraqi adults, including oversamples in Anbar province, Basra city, Kirkuk and the Sadr City section of Baghdad. The results have a 2.5-point error margin. Field work by D3 Systems of Vienna, Va., and KA Research Ltd. of Istanbul."[106]

Question 35 asked:

"Have you or an immediate family member - by which I mean someone living in this household – been physically harmed by the violence that is occurring in the country at this time?"

Here are the results[106] in percentages:

Groups Yes No No opinion
All 17 83 0
Sunni 21 79 0
Shiite 17 83 0
Kurdish 7 93 0

17% of respondents reported that at least one member of the household had been 'physically harmed by the violence that is occurring in the country at this time', translating into at least ~650-700,000 Iraqis. The survey did not ask whether multiple household members had been harmed, so the actual number would most likely be significantly higher.

[edit] Iraq Health Minister estimate in November 2006

In early November 2006 Iraq's Health Minister Ali al-Shemari said that he estimated between 100,000 and 150,000 people had been killed since the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion.[19][18][108][109] The Taipei Times reported on his methodology: "Al-Shemari said on Thursday [Nov. 9, 2006] that he based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought to morgues and hospitals -- though such a calculation would come out closer to 130,000 in total."[19] The Washington Post reported: "As al-Shemari issued the startling new estimate, the head of the Baghdad central morgue said Thursday he was receiving as many as 60 violent death victims each day at his facility alone. Dr. Abdul-Razzaq al-Obaidi said those deaths did not include victims of violence whose bodies were taken to the city's many hospital morgues or those who were removed from attack scenes by relatives and quickly buried according to Muslim custom."[109]

From a November 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune article[18]:

"Each day we lost 100 persons, that means per month 3,000, per year it's 36,000, plus or minus 10 percent," al-Shemari said. "So by three years, 120,000, half year 20,000, that means 140,000, plus or minus 10 percent," he said, explaining how he came to the figures. "This includes all Iraqis killed — police, ordinary people, children," he said, adding that people who were kidnapped and later found dead were also included in his estimate. He said the figures were compiled by counting bodies brought to "forensic institutes" or hospitals.

From the November 11, 2006 Taipei Times article[19]:

An official with the ministry also confirmed the figure yesterday [Nov. 10, 2006], but later said that the estimated deaths ranged between 100,000 and 150,000. "The minister was misquoted. He said between 100,000-150,000 people were killed in three-and-a-half years," the official said.

[edit] 2006 Excess Mortality Study

The October 2006 Lancet study[15][16] estimated total excess deaths up to July 2006. Total deaths (civilian and non-civilian) include all additional deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.. The survey estimated 654,965 excess deaths related to the war. The 2006 study involved surveys between May 20 and July 10, 2006. More households were surveyed than during the 2004 study, allowing for a 95% confidence interval of 392,979 to 942,636 excess Iraqi deaths. The result was disputed by President Bush based both on the number of deaths and the methodology.[110]

Although the British Government initially tried to dispute the accuracy of the Lancet survey, the UK Ministry of Defence's chief scientific adviser later said the survey's methods were "close to best practice" and the study design was "robust"[111]. The ORB and Lancet survey figures are the only statistically accurate casualty figures which are intended to show the total deaths (rather than lower limits, provided by surveys of only those deaths reported to authorities or media agencies).

An October 12, 2006 San Francisco Chronicle article[112] reported: "Asked at the news conference what he thinks the number is now, Bush said: 'I stand by the figure a lot of innocent people have lost their life.' At a separate Pentagon briefing, Gen. George Casey, the top U.S. commander in Iraq, said that the [Lancet] figure 'seems way, way beyond any number that I have seen. I've not seen a number higher than 50,000. And so I don't give it that much credibility at all'."

[edit] 2004 Excess Mortality Study

The October 2004 Lancet study[113] done by public health experts from Johns Hopkins University and published on 29 October 2004 in the Lancet medical journal, estimated that 100,000 "excess" Iraqi deaths from all causes had occurred since the US invasion began. The study did not attempt to measure how many of these were civilian, but the study's authors have said they believe that the "vast majority" were noncombatants, based on 7% of the casualties being women and 46% being children under the age of 15 (including Falluja data). To arrive at these excess death figures, a survey was taken from 988 Iraqi households in 33 clusters throughout Iraq, in which the residents were asked how many people lived there and how many births and deaths there had been since the war began. They then compared the death rate with the average from the 15 months before the war. Iraqis were found to be 1.5 times more likely to die from all causes after the invasion (rising from 0.5% to 0.79% per year) than in the 15 months preceding the war, producing an estimate of 98,000 excess deaths. This figure excluded data from one cluster in Falluja, which was deemed too much of an outlier for inclusion in the national estimate. If including data from Falluja, which showed a higher rate of violent deaths than the other 32 clusters combined, the increased death rate would be raised from 1.5 to 2.5 fold, violent deaths would be 58 times more likely with most of them due to air-strikes by coalition forces, and an additional 200,000 fatalities would be estimated.[114]

The study contains the following Summary:

Background: In March, 2003, military forces, mainly from the USA and the UK, invaded Iraq. We did a survey to compare mortality during the period of 14.6 months before the invasion with the 17.8 months after it.Methods: A cluster sample survey was undertaken throughout Iraq during September, 2004. 33 clusters of 30 households each were interviewed about household composition, births, and deaths since January, 2002. In those households reporting deaths, the date, cause, and circumstances of violent deaths were recorded. We assessed the relative risk of death associated with the 2003 invasion and occupation by comparing mortality in the 17.8 months after the invasion with the 14.6-month period preceding it.Findings: The risk of death was estimated to be 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.6-4.2) higher after the invasion when compared with the preinvasion period. Two-thirds of all violent deaths were reported in one cluster in the city of Falluja. If we exclude the Falluja data, the risk of death is 1.5-fold (1.1-2.3) higher after the invasion. We estimate that 98,000 more deaths than expected (8000-194,000) happened after the invasion outside of Falluja and far more if the outlier Falluja cluster is included. The major causes of death before the invasion were myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and other chronic disorders whereas after the invasion violence was the primary cause of death. Violent deaths were widespread, reported in 15 of 33 clusters, and were mainly attributed to coalition forces. Most individuals reportedly killed by coalition forces were men. The risk of death from violence in the period after the invasion was 58 times higher (95% CI 8.1-419) than in the period before the war.Interpretation: Making conservative assumptions, we think that about 100,000 excess deaths, or more have happened since the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Violence accounted for most of the excess deaths and air strikes from coalition forces accounted for most violent deaths. We have shown that collection of public-health information is possible even during periods of extreme violence. Our results need further verification and should lead to changes to reduce noncombatant deaths from air strikes.

See Lancet study for more details of the methodology and subsequent controversy about the study.

[edit] Iraqi civilian casualties

Iraqi civilians have suffered the bulk of fatalities in this conflict. Estimates of Iraqi civilian casualties are highly disputed. It is difficult for most estimates of Iraqi casualties to separate civilian from combatant casualties. Various estimates are discussed below, and elsewhere in this article. See also the section on total Iraqi casualties.

For the major combat phase of the war from March–April 2003, Abu Dhabi TV reported on April 8, 2003 that Iraqi sources had claimed that 1,252 civilians had been killed and 5,103 had been wounded. The Iraq Body Count project, incorporating subsequent reports, has reported that by the end of the major combat phase up to April 30, 2003, 7,299 civilians had been killed, primarily by US air and ground forces.[92]

[edit] People's Kifah

A study by an Iraqi political party, the "People's Kifah, or Struggle Against Hegemony," (PK) reported the findings of a survey it conducted between March and June of 2003 throughout the non-Kurdish areas of Iraq. They tallied 36,533 civilians killed in those areas by June 2003. Information on this study was first published on the website of retired Wall Street Journal reporter Jude Wanniski in August of 2003.[115] While detailed town-by-town totals are given by the PK spokesperson, details of methodology are very thin and raw data is not in the public domain. A still less detailed report on this study appeared some months later in Al Jazeerah.[116] The Al Jazeera report claims the study covered up to October 2003, but this can not be accurate, as the exact same figures were already published on the Wanniski website in August of 2003.

Note that both the IBC below and PK above define the word civilian to exclude the various paramilitary forces operating in Iraq as well as the official military forces that existed under Saddam Hussein's regime.

[edit] Iraq Body Count project

An independent UK/US group, the Iraq Body Count project (IBC), compiles reported Iraqi civilian deaths resulting from the invasion and occupation, including those caused directly by coalition military action, those caused directly by the Iraqi insurgency, and those resulting from excess crime (the Iraqi Body Count project claims that the Occupying Authority is responsible to prevent these deaths under international law). It shows a minimum of 81,881 and a maximum of 89,360 as of 12 March 2008.

This total represents deaths that have been published by at least two media organizations.[12] However, the IBC has been criticized for counting only a small percentage of the number of actual deaths because they only include deaths reported by respected media agencies.[103][117] IBC Director John Sloboda admits, "We've always said our work is an undercount, you can't possibly expect that a media-based analysis will get all the deaths."[118]

Here are the yearly IBC civilian death totals[119] (as retrieved on Sept. 23, 2007):

Year Dates Civilian deaths
1 1 May 03 - 19 Mar 04 6332 (not counting 7400 invasion deaths through May 1, 2003)
2 20 Mar 04 - 19 Mar 05 11,312
3 20 Mar 05 - 19 Mar 06 14,910
4 20 Mar 06 - 16 Mar 07 26,540

Concerning the yearly totals IBC states: "All figures are taken from the "maximum" confirmed deaths in the IBC database. However, IBC's rates and counts will rise over the coming months, as data is still being added to the IBC database for 2006 and other periods covered here."[119]

The IBC released a report detailing the deaths it recorded between March 2003 and March 2005[92] in which it recorded 24,865 civilian deaths. The report says the US and its allies were responsible for the largest share (37%) of the 24,865 deaths. The remaining deaths were attributed to anti-occupations forces (9%), crime (36%) and unknown agents (11%). It also lists the primary sources used by the media: mortuaries, medics, Iraqi officials, eyewitnesses, police, relatives, US-Coalition, journalists, NGOs, friends/Associates, other.

[edit] Iraqi refugees crisis

Main article: Refugees of Iraq

As of November 4, 2006, the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 1.6 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[80]

As of 2007 more Iraqis have lost their homes and become refugees than the population of any other country. Over 3.9 million people, close to 16% of the Iraqi population, have become uprooted. Of these, around 2 million have fled Iraq and flooded other countries, and 1.9 million are estimated to be refugees inside Iraq.[120]

Roughly 40 percent of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return. All kinds of people, from university professors to bakers, have been targeted by militias, insurgents and criminals. An estimated 331 school teachers were slain in the first four months of 2006, according to Human Rights Watch, and at least 2,000 Iraqi doctors have been killed and 250 kidnapped since the 2003 U.S. invasion.[121]

A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.[122] As a result of growing international pressure, on June 1, 2007 the Bush administration said it was ready to admit 7,000 Iraqi refugees who had helped the coalition since the invasion. According to Washington-based Refugees International the U.S. has admitted fewer than 800 Iraqi refugees since the invasion, Sweden had accepted 18,000, and Australia had resettled almost 6,000.[123]

[edit] Iraqi insurgent casualties

There is a representative list of insurgents and militia members killed in the Iraq War according to a few published news sources. See: List of Insurgents killed in Iraq. According to the list, and the other sources discussed there, at least 16,500 insurgents, militia, suicide bombers, and other fighters have been killed during the war.

Insurgent deaths, like civilian deaths, are hard to count or estimate. See:[124][125]

See also the examples of undercounting shown in the next section.

An Al Qaeda leader claimed that 4000 foreign insurgents have been killed in the war. See this Sept. 28, 2006 Associated Press article:[126]

The Lancet surveys did not ask whether the dead were combatants or not.

[edit] Iraqi Security Forces

There are various estimates for the number of Iraqi police and military killed. See the overview section higher up for the latest numbers for Iraqi Security Force (ISF) casualties.

The "Iraq Index" of the Brookings Institution keeps a running total of Iraqi Security Force (ISF) casualties.[127]

There is also a breakdown of ISF casualties at the icasualties.org site.[128]

[edit] Undercounting

Most studies estimating the casualties due to the war in Iraq acknowledge various reasons why the estimates and counts may be low.

A January 10, 2008 Washington Post article reported: "Previous research has shown that household surveys typically miss 30 to 50 percent of deaths. One reason is that some families that have suffered violent deaths leave the survey area. ... Some people are kidnapped and disappear, and others turn up months or years later in mass graves. Some are buried or otherwise disposed of without being recorded. In particularly violent areas, local governments have effectively ceased to function, and there are ineffective channels for collecting and passing information between hospitals, morgues and the central government."[5]

On November 10, 2006 The Washington Post reported: "Accurate figures on the number of people who have died in the Iraq conflict have long been the subject of debate. Police and hospitals often give widely conflicting figures of those killed in major bombings. In addition, death figures are reported through multiple channels by government agencies that function with varying efficiency."[109]

The October 2006 Lancet study[15][16] states: "Aside from Bosnia, we can find no conflict situation where passive surveillance [used by the IBC] recorded more than 20% of the deaths measured by population-based methods [used in the Lancet studies]. In several outbreaks, disease and death recorded by facility-based methods underestimated events by a factor of ten or more when compared with population-based estimates. Between 1960 and 1990, newspaper accounts of political deaths in Guatemala correctly reported over 50% of deaths in years of low violence but less than 5% in years of highest violence."[15] The report describes no other specific examples except for this study of Guatemala.

The Lancet reference used is to Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer and their 1999 book, State Violence in Guatemala, 1960-1996: A Quantitative Reflection.[129] From the introduction:

"The CIIDH database consists of cases culled from direct testimonies and documentary and press sources."

They report in chapter 7:[130]

"Figure 7.1 shows that in the CIIDH database, most of the information for human rights violations prior to 1977 comes from press sources. ... Approximately 10,890 cases were coded from the newspapers. Sixty-three percent of the press cases were taken from Prensa Libre, 10 percent from El Gráfico, 8 percent from La Hora and El Impacto respectively, and 6 percent from El Imparcial. The remaining 5 percent is made up by eight other newspapers."

But they reported that in later, more violent years:

"When the level of violence increased dramatically in the late 1970s and early 1980s, numbers of reported violations in the press stayed very low. In 1981, one of the worst years of state violence, the numbers fall towards zero. The press reported almost none of the rural violence."

There is a list[131] of figures, tables, and charts in the book that can be used to calculate what percentage of the deaths were reported by the 13 Guatemalan newspapers for each year when compared to testimonies of witnesses compiled by popular organizations.

A July 28, 2004 article by The Independent[132] reports that "some families bury their dead without notifying the authorities."

Stephen Soldz, who runs the website "Iraq Occupation and Resistance Report", wrote in a February 5, 2006 article:[133] "Of course, in conditions of active rebellion, the safer areas accessible to Western reporters are likely to be those under US/Coalition control, where deaths are, in turn, likely to be due to insurgent attacks. Areas of insurgent control, which are likely to be subject to US and Iraqi government attack, for example most of Anbar province, are simply off-limits to these reporters. Thus, the realities of reporting imply that reporters will be witness to a larger fraction of deaths due to insurgents and a lesser proportion of deaths due to US and Iraqi government forces."

A June 25, 2006 Los Angeles Times article[134] reports: "Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but not counted because of serious lapses in recording deaths. ... The [Los Angeles] Times attempted to reach a comprehensive figure by obtaining statistics from the Baghdad morgue and the Health Ministry and checking those numbers against a sampling of local health departments for possible undercounts."

An October 19, 2006 Washington Post article[110] reports: "The deaths reported by officials and published in the news media represent only a fraction of the thousands of mutilated bodies winding up in Baghdad's overcrowded morgue each month. ... Bodies are increasingly being dumped in and around Baghdad in fields staked out by individual Shiite militias and Sunni insurgent groups. Iraqi security forces often refuse to go to the dumping grounds, leaving the precise number of bodies in those sites unknown. Civilian deaths, unlike those of American troops, often go unrecorded."

The Australian reports in a January 2, 2007 article[99] that Iraqi government casualty estimates include "people killed in bombings and shootings but not deaths classed as 'criminal'." Also, they "include no deaths among the many civilians wounded in attacks who may die later from wounds. Nor do they include many people kidnapped whose fate remains unknown."

In a November 7, 2004 press release[135] concerning the October 2004 Lancet study the Iraq Body Count project (IBC) states: "We have always been quite explicit that our own total is certain to be an underestimate of the true position, because of gaps in reporting or recording".

One of the sources used by the media are morgues. Only the central Baghdad area morgue has released figures consistently. While that is the largest morgue in Iraq and in the most consistently violent area, the absence of comprehensive morgue figures elsewhere leads to undercounting. IBC makes it clear that, due to these issues, its count will almost certainly be below the full toll in its 'Quick FAQ' on its homepage.

Quote from an IBC note:[136] "The Iraq Body Count (IBC) estimate for x350, like that for x334, was made possible by examination of the detailed data supplied to the Associated Press (AP) by the morgues surveyed in AP's 23rd May 2004 survey of Iraqi morgues."

That May 23, 2004 Associated Press article[137] points out the lack of morgue data from many areas of Iraq. Also, it states: "The [Baghdad] figure does not include most people killed in big terrorist bombings, Hassan said. The cause of death in such cases is obvious so bodies are usually not taken to the morgue, but given directly to victims' families. Also, the bodies of killed fighters from groups like the al-Mahdi Army are rarely taken to morgues."

[edit] Systematic underreporting by U.S.

An April 2005 article by The Independent[138] reports:

"A week before she was killed by a suicide bomber, humanitarian worker Marla Ruzicka forced military commanders to admit they did keep records of Iraqi civilians killed by US forces. ... in an essay Ms Ruzicka wrote a week before her death on Saturday and published yesterday, the 28-year-old revealed that a Brigadier General told her it was 'standard operating procedure' for US troops to file a report when they shoot a non-combatant. She obtained figures for the number of civilians killed in Baghdad between 28 February and 5 April [2005], and discovered that 29 had been killed in firefights involving US forces and insurgents. This was four times the number of Iraqi police killed."

The December 2006 report of the Iraq Study Group (ISG) found that the United States has filtered out reports of violence in order to disguise its policy failings in Iraq.[139] A December 7, 2006 McClatchy Newspapers article[139] reports that the ISG found that U.S. officials reported 93 attacks or significant acts of violence on one day in July 2006, yet "a careful review of the reports for that single day brought to light more than 1,100 acts of violence." The article further reports:

"The finding confirmed a Sept. 8 McClatchy Newspapers report that U.S. officials excluded scores of people killed in car bombings and mortar attacks from tabulations measuring the results of a drive to reduce violence in Baghdad. By excluding that data, U.S. officials were able to boast that deaths from sectarian violence in the Iraqi capital had declined by more than 52 percent between July and August, McClatchy newspapers reported."

From the ISG report itself: "A murder of an Iraqi is not necessarily counted as an attack. If we cannot determine the source of a sectarian attack, that assault does not make it into the database. A roadside bomb or a rocket or mortar attack that doesn't hurt U.S. personnel doesn't count."[139]

[edit] Casualties caused by criminal and political violence

In May 2004 the Associated Press completed a survey[137] of the morgues in Baghdad and surrounding provinces. The survey tallied violent deaths from May 1, 2003, when President Bush declared an end to major combat operations, through April 30, 2004.

From the AP article:

In Baghdad, a city of about 5.6 million, 4,279 people were recorded killed in the 12 months through April 30 [2004], according to figures provided by Kais Hassan, director of statistics at Baghdad's Medicolegal Institute, which administers the city's morgues. "Before the war, there was a strong government, strong security. There were a lot of police on the streets and there were no illegal weapons," he said during an AP reporter's visit to the morgue. "Now there are few controls. There is crime, revenge killings, so much violence." The figure does not include most people killed in big terrorist bombings, Hassan said. The cause of death in such cases is obvious so bodies are usually not taken to the morgue, but given directly to victims' families. Also, the bodies of killed fighters from groups like the al-Mahdi Army are rarely taken to morgues.

Accidental trauma deaths from car accidents, falls, etc. are not included in the numbers. The article reports that the numbers translate to 76 killings per 100,000 people in Baghdad, compared to 39 in crime-ridden Bogotá, Colombia, 7.5 in New York City, and 2.4 in neighboring Jordan. The article states that there were 3.0 killings per 100,000 people in Baghdad in 2002 (the year before the war).

Morgues surveyed in other parts of Iraq also reported large increases in the number of homicides. Karbala, south of Baghdad, increased from an average of one homicide per month in 2002 to an average of 55 per month in the year following the invasion; in Tikrit, north of Baghdad, where there were no homicides in 2002, the rate had grown to an average of 17 per month; in the northern province of Kirkuk, the rate had increased from 3 per month in 2002 to 34 per month in the survey period.[137]

[edit] Non-Iraqi civilian casualties

Many non-combatants from both coalition and non-coalition countries have also been killed or wounded, including journalists and international aid personnel and foreign civilians. See the main overview chart at the top for numbers and more info.

[edit] Coalition military casualties

Most U.S. casualties, like these in a C-17, return to Dover AFB.

For the latest casualty numbers see the overview chart at the top of the page. See also the icasualties.org site:[61]

Since the official handover of power to the Iraq interim government on June 28, 2004, coalition soldiers have continued to come under attack in towns across Iraq.

National Public Radio, iCasualties.org, and GlobalSecurity.org have month-by-month charts of American troop deaths in the Iraq War.[1][140][141]

British Casualty Monitor has a fortnightly updated graphical analysis of British casualties.[142]

The combined total of coalition and contractor casualties in the conflict is now over ten times that of the 1990-1991 Gulf War. In the Gulf War, coalition forces suffered around 378 deaths, and among the Iraqi military, tens of thousands were killed, along with thousands of civilians.

[edit] Troops fallen ill, injured, or wounded

See the overview chart at the top of the page for recent numbers.

On August 29, 2006 the Christian Science Monitor reported:[143] "Because of new body armor and advances in military medicine, for example, the ratio of combat-zone deaths to those wounded has dropped from 24 percent in Vietnam to 13 percent in Iraq and Afghanistan. In other words, the numbers of those killed as a percentage of overall casualties is lower."

Many U.S. veterans of the Iraq War have reported a range of serious health issues, including tumors, daily blood in urine and stool, sexual dysfunction, migraines, frequent muscle spasms, and other symptoms similar to the debilitating symptoms of "Gulf War Syndrome" reported by many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, which some believe is related to the United States' use of radioactive depleted uranium.[144]

A study[145] of U.S. veterans published in July 2004 in the The New England Journal of Medicine on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans found that 5 to 9.4% (depending on the strictness of the PTSD definition used) suffered from PTSD before deployment. After deployment 6.2 to 19.9% suffered from PTSD. For the broad definition of PTSD that represents an increase of 10.5% (19.9 - 9.4% = 10.5%). That is 10,500 additional cases of PTSD for every 100,000 U.S. troops after they have served in Iraq. ePluribus Media, an independent citizen journalism collective, is tracking and cataloging press-reported possible, probable, or confirmed incidents of post-deployment or combat-zone cases in its PTSD Timeline.[146]

Information on injuries suffered by troops of other coalition countries is less readily available, but a statement in Hansard indicated that 2,703 UK soldiers had been medically evacuated from Iraq for wounds or injuries as of October 4, 2004 and that 155 UK troops were wounded in combat in the initial invasion.[147]

[edit] Nightline controversy

Map showing U.S. casualty numbers by state

Ted Koppel, host of ABC's Nightline, devoted his entire show on April 30, 2004, to reading the names of 721 of the 737 U.S. troops who had died thus far. He did not mention deaths in Afghanistan. (The show hadn't been able to confirm the remaining 16 names.)

Claiming that this would constitute a political statement, the Sinclair Broadcast Group took the action of barring the seven ABC-affiliated stations it controls from airing the show. The decision to censor the broadcast drew criticism from both sides, including members of the armed forces, opponents of the war, MoveOn.org, and most notably Republican Senator John McCain, who denounced the move as "unpatriotic" and "a gross disservice to the public"

[edit] Dec. 25, 2006. U.S. military death total surpasses 9/11 death toll.

Many newspapers reported that on Christmas day, December 25, 2006 the total number of U.S. military deaths from the Iraq War equaled and surpassed the 2973 total deaths on 9/11 (not counting the 19 suicide hijackers). For example; a Dec. 27, 2006 Newsday article[148] reported:

"A Christmas Day explosion pushed the number of American troops killed in Iraq above the Sept. 11, 2001, death toll. ... The bomb explosion Monday, which killed two soldiers south of Baghdad, raised the number of troops killed to 2,974 since the beginning of the Iraq war in 2003, according to a count by The Associated Press. Terrorists hijacked jetliners on Sept. 11, 2001, and crashed them into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and a Pennsylvania field, killing 2,973 people."

[edit] Amputees

Amputee US soldier

As of January 18, 2007, there were at least 500 American amputees due to the Iraq War. According to a Time magazine article, the 500th victim was a 24-year-old corporal, who lost both legs in a roadside bomb explosion on January 12, 2007. He was cared for at the military hospital in Landstuhl, Germany, and then was transferred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

The article reports: "The 500 major amputations — toes and fingers aren't counted — represent 2.2% of the 22,700 U.S. troops wounded in action. But the number rises to 5% in the category of soldiers whose wounds prevent them returning to duty."[76]

[edit] Traumatic brain injuries (TBI)

A Feb. 2007 article[149] by Discover magazine, titled "Dead Men Walking. What sort of future do brain-injured Iraq veterans face?", reports: "One expert from the VA estimates the number of undiagnosed TBIs at over 7,500. Nearly 2,000 brain-injured soldiers have already received some level of care, ..."

USA Today reported in November 2007:

At least 20,000 U.S. troops who were not classified as wounded during combat in Iraq and Afghanistan have been found with signs of brain injuries, according to military and veterans records compiled by USA TODAY.

The data, provided by the Army, Navy and Department of Veterans Affairs, show that about five times as many troops sustained brain trauma as the 4,471 officially listed by the Pentagon through Sept. 30. These cases also are not reflected in the Pentagon's official tally of wounded, which stands at 30,327.[150]

[edit] Mental illness and suicide

A March 12, 2007 Time magazine article[151] reports on a study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine. About one third of the 103,788 veterans returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars seen at Veterans Affairs facilities between September 30, 2001 and September 30, 2005 were diagnosed with mental illness or a psycho-social disorder, such as homelessness and marital problems, including domestic violence. More than half of those diagnosed, 56%, were suffering from more than one disorder. The most common combination was post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.

In January 2008 the U.S. Army reported that the rate of suicide among soldiers in 2007 was the highest since the Army started counting in 1980. There were 121 suicides in 2007, a 20% jump over the prior year. Also, there were around 2100 attempted suicides and self-injuries in 2007.[152]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c "NPR: The Toll of War". National Public Radio's website bar chart of various death toll estimates.
  2. ^ WHO country office in Iraq. Iraq Family Health Survey. World Health Organization (WHO).
  3. ^ "New study says 151,000 Iraqi dead", BBC News Online, 10 January 2008. 
  4. ^ "151,000 civilians killed since Iraq invasion". By Sarah Boseley. January 10, 2008. The Guardian.
  5. ^ a b "New Estimate of Violent Deaths Among Iraqis Is Lower". By David Brown and Joshua Partlow. January 10, 2008. Washington Post.
  6. ^ Alkhuzai AH, Ahmad IJ, Hweel MJ, Ismail TW, et al. (2008). "Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006". N Engl J Med 358 (2): 484-93. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa0707782. PMID 18184950. 
  7. ^ a b Update on Iraqi Casualty Data by Opinion Research Business, January 2008
  8. ^ a b "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: [1]
  9. ^ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq May Top 1 Million". By Tina Susman. Sept. 14, 2007. Los Angeles Times.
  10. ^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. Sept. 16, 2007. The Observer (UK).
  11. ^ "The Media Ignore Credible Poll Revealing 1.2 Million Violent Deaths In Iraq". Sept. 18, 2007. MediaLens.
  12. ^ a b c Iraq Body Count project. Source of IBC quote on undercounting by media is here.
  13. ^ "Year Four: Simply the worst". Press Release 15, Iraq Body Count.
  14. ^ "Iraqi Death Toll Exceeded 34,000 in '06, U.N. Says". By Sabrina Tavernise. New York Times. Jan. 17, 2007.
  15. ^ a b c d 2006 Lancet study. PDF file of Lancet article: "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey"PDF (242 KiB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, October 11, 2006.
  16. ^ a b c Supplement to 2006 Lancet study: "The Human Cost of the War in Iraq: A Mortality Study, 2002-2006"PDF (603 KiB). By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doocy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts.
  17. ^ "The Iraq deaths study was valid and correct". The Age. October 21, 2006
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  19. ^ a b c d "Iraqi death toll estimates go as high as 150,000". Taipei Times. Nov 11, 2006.
  20. ^ a b c "War's Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000". Louise Roug and Doug Smith. Los Angeles Times. June 25, 2006.
  21. ^ CNN.com - Iraqi police prime targets of insurgency - Jan 11, 2005
  22. ^ Dispatches
  23. ^ Operation Iraqi Freedom
  24. ^ DoD News: Coalition Provisional Authority Briefing
  25. ^ DefenseLINK News: Suicide Car Bomb Injures Iraqi Official, Coalition Continues Operations
  26. ^ DoD News: Coalition Provisional Authority Briefing
  27. ^ [ Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty ]
  28. ^ The Violence in Iraq Continues
  29. ^ Terror strikes blamed on al-Zarqawi in Iraq - Hunt for Al-Qaida - MSNBC.com
  30. ^ http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2001958982_iraq18.html
  31. ^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Us, Iraqi Soldiers Killed In Bomb Attack
  32. ^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | Multiple attacks kill 100 in Iraq
  33. ^ 35 insurgents, seven Iraqi troops killed near Baghdad - After Saddam - www.smh.com.au
  34. ^ US marines killed in Iraq ambush
  35. ^ CNN.com - Kirkuk suicide blast kills 19 - Sep 18, 2004
  36. ^ CNN.com - Insurgents attack Iraqi military targets - Sep 27, 2004
  37. ^ CNN.com - Four killed in attack on Iraqi national guard post - Oct 19, 2004
  38. ^ Guerrillas kill 22 Iraqi police, guardsmen; 6 U.S. troops hurt | The San Diego Union-Tribune
  39. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Fallujah
  40. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mosul_%282004%29
  41. ^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Iraqi Troops Killed In Car Bomb Attack
  42. ^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Us Marine, Iraqi Guardsmen Killed
  43. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Forward_Operating_Base_Marez
  44. ^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Filipinos Killed In Us Camp Attack
  45. ^ Iraqi Resistance Report for events of Sunday, 4 April 2004, through Wednesday, 7 April 2004
  46. ^ Iraq Timeline 2004 - Council on Foreign Relations
  47. ^ Microsoft Word - $ASQISFChronologyMay2006.doc
  48. ^ 2,000 More M.P.'s Will Help Train the Iraqi Police - New York Times
  49. ^ 120 Iraqis, 7 US Soldiers Die in Bombings
  50. ^ iCasualties: OIF Iraqi Deaths
  51. ^ 16,273 deaths reported in Iraq in 2006
  52. ^ http://timesdaily.com/article/20080101/API/801010584&cachetime=5
  53. ^ Antiwar.com
  54. ^ iCasualties - Journalist deaths in Iraq.
  55. ^ Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). "IRAQ: Journalists in Danger".
  56. ^ Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). "Media support workers killed since March 2003".
  57. ^ "NCCI - NGO coordination committee in Iraq". Aid workers killed in Iraq since 2003.
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  60. ^ Many official U.S. tables at "Military Casualty Information". See latest injury, disease, and other-medical totals. See also: Latest fatality and wounded-in-action totals.
  61. ^ a b c iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al., "Iraq Coalition Casualties".
  62. ^ iCasualties - "U.S. Wounded By Week".
  63. ^ iCasualties - Coalition fatalities by cause of death.
  64. ^ iCasualties - "Iraq Coalition Casualties: Hostile - NonHostile Deaths".
  65. ^ iCasualties - "Deaths By Coalition Country".
  66. ^ a b c "In outsourced U.S. wars, contractor deaths top 1,000". By Bernd Debusmann. Reuters. July 3, 2007. 10,569 wounded and 933 deaths in Iraq. 224 are U.S. citizens.
  67. ^ a b iCasualties - "Iraq Coalition Casualties: Contractor Fatalities". Incomplete list.
  68. ^ a b "Reconstruction report: 916 death claims for civilian contractors in Iraq". USA Today. April 30, 2007.
  69. ^ a b "Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction : April 2007 Report".
  70. ^ a b Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. "April 30, 2007 Quarterly Report to Congress (Highlights, All Sections and Appendices)"PDF (10.8 MiB)
  71. ^ a b "Death Toll for Contractors Reaches New High in Iraq". By John M. Broder and James Risen. New York Times. May 19, 2007. "workers from more than three dozen other countries".
  72. ^ "Contractor deaths add up in Iraq". By Michelle Roberts. Deseret Morning News. Feb. 24, 2007. "often highly dangerous duties almost identical to those performed by many U.S. troops."
  73. ^ a b [2] "Private contractors outnumber U.S. troops in Iraq"]. By T. Christian Miller. Los Angeles Times. July 4, 2007. 182,000 contractors: "21,000 Americans, 43,000 foreign contractors and about 118,000 Iraqis".
  74. ^ "CHRONOLOGY-The deadliest bomb attacks in Iraq". Reuters. 17 Jan. 2007.
  75. ^ "4 bombings in Baghdad kill at least 183". By Steven R. Hurst and Lauren Frayer, Associated Press Writers.
  76. ^ a b A Grim Milestone: 500 Amputees; Time (magazine); Thursday, January 18, 2007
  77. ^ "Getting amputees back on their feet". By Eilene Zimmerman. San Francisco Chronicle. Nov. 8, 2006.
  78. ^ Basu, Moni. "Brain trauma a 'silent epidemic' among Iraq veterans", USA Today, 2006-11-19. Retrieved on 2006-11-19. 
  79. ^ "1 in 4 Iraq vets ailing on return". By Gregg Zoroya. USA Today. October 18, 2005.
  80. ^ a b "U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly". Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006.
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  82. ^ "Contractor deaths in Iraq nearing 800". By David Ivanovich and Brett Clanton. Houston Chronicle. Jan. 28, 2007.
  83. ^ "In Iraq, contractor deaths near 650, legal fog thickens". By Bernd Debusmann, Reuters, Oct. 10, 2006.
  84. ^ "As insurgent attacks increase, so do contractors' costs". By Thanassis Cambanis and Stephen Glain, Globe Staff. The Boston Globe. April 2, 2004.
  85. ^ "Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq". New York Times. April 19, 2004.
  86. ^ "Deaths of scores of mercenaries hidden from view". By Robert Fisk and Patrick Cockburn. The Star. April 13, 2004.
  87. ^ "Tommy Franks - Wikiquote". "we don't do body counts." March 2002 in Afghanistan.
  88. ^ "Success in Afghan war hard to gauge". By Edward Epstein. San Francisco Chronicle. March 23, 2002.
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  90. ^ "New Study Finds: 11,000 to 15,000 Killed in Iraq War; 30 Percent are Non-combatants". Project on Defense Alternatives. Press release. Oct. 20, 2003.
  91. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives Research Monograph #8. Carl Conetta. October 20, 2003.
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  93. ^ "Body counts". By Jonathan Steele. The Guardian. May 28, 2003.
  94. ^ "Decrepit healthcare adds to toll in Iraq". Louise Roug, Los Angeles Times, November 11, 2006.
  95. ^ George W. Bush, "President Discusses War on Terror and Upcoming Iraqi Elections ". White House transcript. Dec. 12, 2005. Says 30,000 Iraqi dead.
  96. ^ "Bush: Iraqi democracy making progress". CNN. Dec. 12, 2005. "I would say 30,000, more or less, have died as a result of the initial incursion and the ongoing violence against Iraqis," Bush said. CNN writes: "White House spokesman Scott McClellan later said Bush was basing his statement on media reports, 'not an official government estimate.' "
  97. ^ "Iraqi Death Toll Exceeded 34,000 in '06, U.N. Says". By Sabrina Tavernise. New York Times. Jan. 17, 2007.
  98. ^ "Bruised and battered: Iraqi toll crosses 16000 in '06". By the Associated Press. The Indian Express. Jan. 3, 2007.
  99. ^ a b c "Iraq civilian deaths hit new record". By Alastair Macdonald. The Australian. Jan. 2, 2007.
  100. ^ Iraq Living Conditions Survey 2004. United Nations Development Programme.
  101. ^ "IRAQ: Civilian Deaths Massive by Any Measure". By Haider Rizvi. January 11, 2008. Inter Press Service News Agency.
  102. ^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. Sept. 16, 2007. The Observer (UK).
  103. ^ a b "The Media Ignore Credible Poll Revealing 1.2 Million Violent Deaths In Iraq". Sept. 18, 2007. MediaLens.
  104. ^ "Iraq poll 2007: In graphics". BBC News. March 19, 2007.
  105. ^ "Voices From Iraq 2007: Ebbing Hope in a Landscape of Loss". By Gary Langer. March 19, 2007. ABC News.
  106. ^ a b c ABC News/USA Today/BBC/ARD Poll. March 19, 2007. Detailed results with tables, charts, and graphs.
  107. ^ "Iraq Poll 2007". D3 Systems poll (Feb. 25 to March 5, 2007) for BBC, ABC News, ARD German TV and USA Today.
  108. ^ "Official: 150,000 Iraqis Killed Since 2003". CBS News. November 9, 2006.
  109. ^ a b c "Iraqi Official: 150,000 Civilians Dead". Washington Post. Steven R. Hurst. Nov. 10, 2006.
  110. ^ a b "One-Day Toll in Iraq Combat Is Highest for U.S. in Months". By Ellen Knickmeyer. Washington Post. Oct. 19, 2006.
  111. ^ Iraqi deaths survey 'was robust'. By Owen Bennett-Jones. BBC. 26 March 2007.
  112. ^ "Critics say 600,000 Iraqi dead doesn't tally. But pollsters defend methods used in Johns Hopkins study". By Anna Badkhen. San Francisco Chronicle. Oct. 12, 2006.
  113. ^ "Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey"PDF (263 KiB). By Les Roberts, Riyadh Lafta, Richard Garfield, Jamal Khudhairi, and Gilbert Burnham. The Lancet, October 29, 2004. (hosted by zmag.org).
  114. ^ "Study puts Iraqi toll at 100,000", CNN, 2004-10-29. Retrieved on 2006-08-09. 
  115. ^ Wanniski, Jude. "Civilian War Deaths in Iraq", August 21, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-08-09. 
  116. ^ Janabi, Ahmed. "Iraqi group: Civilian toll over 37,000", Al Jazeera, 2004-07-31. 
  117. ^ "Iraq Body Count - Media Lens responds". BBC. April 28, 2006.
  118. ^ Fuller, David. (28 April 2006) "Virtual war follows Iraq conflict". BBC Newsnight
  119. ^ a b "Year Four: Simply the worst". Press Release 15, Iraq Body Count.
  120. ^ "Billboarding the Iraq disaster". By Anthony Arnove. Asia Times. March 20, 2007.
  121. ^ "Conflict in Iraq. Iraq refugee crisis exploding. 40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation". By Carolyn Lochhead, Jan. 16, 2007. San Francisco Chronicle.
  122. ^ "Iraq refugees find no refuge in America." By Ann McFeatters. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 25, 2007.
  123. ^ US in Iraq for 'another 50 years', The Australian, June 2, 2007
  124. ^ http://www.washtimes.com/world/20050726-121818-8711r.htm
  125. ^ "Civilian, insurgent deaths hard to tally". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept. 8, 2004.
  126. ^ "Al Qaeda Leader: Over 4,000 Foreign Insurgents Killed in Iraq". Associated Press. Sept. 28, 2006.
  127. ^ Iraq Index. Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq. Brookings Institution. For the latest total of Iraqi police and military killed see page 8 of the most recent Iraq Index PDF file linked there.
  128. ^ iCasualties: OIF Iraqi Deaths. An icasualties.org breakdown of deaths in Iraq. See the ISF (Iraqi Security Forces) column.
  129. ^ State Violence in Guatemala, 1960-1996: A Quantitative Reflection.. 1999 book by Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.
  130. ^ "Chapter 7: Reporting the Violence". From 1999 book. By Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.
  131. ^ "List of figures". From 1999 book. By Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.
  132. ^ "Baghdad is a city that reeks with the stench of the dead". By Robert Fisk. The Independent. July 28, 2004.
  133. ^ Stephen Soldz. "When Promoting Truth Obscures the Truth: More on Iraqi Body Count and Iraqi Deaths". ZNet, February 5, 2006.
  134. ^ "War's Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000". Louise Roug and Doug Smith. Los Angeles Times. June 25, 2006.
  135. ^ "IBC response to the Lancet study estimating '100,000' Iraqi deaths". November 7, 2004 press release. Iraq Body Count project. All IBC press releases: [3]
  136. ^ Iraq Body Count
  137. ^ a b c "5,500 Iraqis Killed, Morgue Records Show". By Daniel Cooney. Associated Press. May 23, 2004. Article is here also.
  138. ^ "Aid Worker Uncovered America's Secret Tally of Iraqi Civilian Deaths". By Andrew Buncombe. The Independent. April 20, 2005.
  139. ^ a b c "Study Says Violence in Iraq Has Been Underreported". Jonathan S. Landay. McClatchy Newspapers. Dec. 7, 2006.
  140. ^ iCasualties: OIF US Fatalities by month. At iCasualties.org
  141. ^ U.S. Casualties in Iraq. At GlobalSecurity.org
  142. ^ "British Casualty Monitor: Tracking the war in Iraq"
  143. ^ "In Iraq, fewer killed, more are wounded". By Brad Knickerbocker. Christian Science Monitor. August 29, 2006.
  144. ^ Is an Armament Sickening U.S. Soldiers?. Associated Press (2006-08-12). Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
  145. ^ "Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care". By Charles W. Hoge, M.D., Carl A. Castro, Ph.D., Stephen C. Messer, Ph.D., Dennis McGurk, Ph.D., Dave I. Cotting, Ph.D., and Robert L. Koffman, M.D., M.P.H.. The New England Journal of Medicine. July 1, 2004.
  146. ^ ePluribus Media. PTSD Timeline. Database of reported OEF/OIF cases.
  147. ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 4 Oct 2004. The United Kingdom Parliament.
  148. ^ "Military deaths in Iraq exceed Sept. 11 toll of 2,973". By Amy Westfeldt of Associated Press. Newsday. Dec. 27, 2006.
  149. ^ "Dead Men Walking. What sort of future do brain-injured Iraq veterans face?". By Michael Mason. Discover. Feb. 22, 2007.
  150. ^ "20,000 vets' brain injuries not listed in Pentagon tally". By Gregg Zoroya. November 22, 2007. USA Today.
  151. ^ "Casualty of War: Mental Health". By Claudia Wallis. Time magazine. March 12, 2007.
  152. ^ "Army Report Reveals 121 Suspected Suicides Among Soldiers in 2007, 20 Percent Increase Over 2006". January 31, 2008. Fox News.

[edit] External links and references

(Additional links not found in the 2 reference sections higher up.)

U.S. military casualties onlyCoalition (including U.S. and contractors) casualties onlyIraqi casualties onlyCasualty photosGeneral and miscellaneous [show]
v  d  e
Iraq War
Prior events

Invasion and
occupation

Aftermath


Iraq since 2003




===end of Wikipedia page===


---


Cheers,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


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Eco Mann | 18 Apr 04:56 2008
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MMM. Drug war casualties. Charts, tables, graphs. Gallery.marihemp.com



Hello all. Please check out page 2 also.


====Marihemp.com charts page begins====


http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts?page=2




 Charts and stats. Drug war and more. 

Powered by Gallery v1.4.2



====end of Marihemp.com charts page====



---


Cheers,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


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Eco Mann | 19 Apr 03:46 2008
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MMM. Narco News. 8th Anniversary Celebration. Seattle, April 25, Friday.



---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: ddbriones <dave-n1BlVgV82J6akBO8gow8eQ@public.gmane.org>
Date: Fri, Apr 18, 2008 at 8:34 PM
Subject: [narconews] Narco News to Hold 8th Anniversary Celebration in Seattle, Friday, April 25
To: narconews-hHKSG33TihhbjbujkaE4pw@public.gmane.org


April 18, 2008
Please Distribute Widely

Dear Colleague,

Today marks eight years since I posted a little website on the
Internet – www.narconews.com - to publish my reporting on the drug war
and democracy from Latin America. The project quickly grew and grew
and now includes more than 100 graduates of the Narco News School of
Authentic Journalism, 326 co-publishers, and hundreds of thousands of
readers around the world in seven languages.

Just think: We've now been online longer than George Bush or Bill
Clinton or Ronald Reagan or Dwight Eisenhower had been presidents of
the United States.

We began publishing just as the bubble had burst on the "dot-com
boom," when hundreds of commercial online newspapers and magazines
went out of business. Our mission was different: not to make a profit,
but to break the information blockade by commercial media that ignore
or distort the news across international borders in our América.

We built it, and they came. Our reporting on drug war corruption got
us sued in our first year by the National Bank of Mexico (Banamex, now
part of Citibank). The readers jumped to support our defense fund, we
went to the New York Supreme Court, and won the first-ever
precedent-setting decision that extends First Amendment protections to
Internet journalists everywhere.

We've investigated and blown the whistle on corrupt government
agencies, officials, money launderers, simulator journalists with
conflicts-of-interest, an attempted coup in Venezuela, a US military
intervention in Colombia, and the rampant corruption among US law
enforcement agencies along the United States-Mexico border.

And in doing so we've walked side by side with the indigenous and
social movements from Chiapas, Oaxaca and 32 Mexican states to the
coca growers of Bolivia to the harm reduction movements of Brazil to
the pro-democracy movements across the hemisphere.

And through the Narco News School of Authentic Journalism we've
trained a new generation of honest and talented journalists of conscience.

This year, we'll be holding our anniversary celebration in the Pacific
Northwestern city of Seattle, Washington. And even if you don't live
or work nearby, you're invited to participate by being a sponsor of
the event:

Narco News 8th Anniversary Celebration
Friday, April 25
6 p.m.
Waid's Haitian Lounge
http://waidsplace.com/wp/
1212 E. Jefferson Street
(Near The Seattle University, between 12th & 13th streets)
Seattle, Washington

Special Guests:

Jill Freidberg, documentary filmmaker
Ron Smith, documentary filmmaker, professor, Narco News School of
Authentic Journalism
Amber Howard, graduate, Narco News School of Authentic Journalism
Laura Carlsen, director, Americas Project
Al Giordano, publisher, Narco News

Make your reservation now, online, via The Fund for Authentic
Journalism, a 501c3 tax exempt corporation that supports our work:

http://www.authenticjournalism.org/

Admission $10

Students $5

Sponsors $50 or more

Sponsors will be listed on Narco News and on the event program.

If you have friends and family in Seattle, you can purchase tickets
for them (just send me an email at narconews-Re5JQEeQqe8AvxtiuMwx3w@public.gmane.org so we can make
sure to put them on the list).

Your contribution also entitles you to a free account on The
Narcosphere, to comment on Narco News story and post notebook entries
of your own. (Stay tuned: On our birthday, we also give presents, and
the new Narcosphere design and features will be unveiled before next
Friday's event.)

Whether you can be there in person or not, we hope you will join in
the celebration and help keep this vital work of authentic journalism
going even longer.

Please join in the celebration via The Fund's website:

http://www.authenticjournalism.org

Or by sending a check to "The Fund for Authentic Journalism" at:

The Fund for Authentic Journalism
PO Box 241
Natick, MA 01760 USA

Thanks for your eight years of readership and support. We'll keep
doing our job as long as you think it needs to be done.

From somewhere in a country called América,


Al Giordano
Founder, Narco News
narconews-Re5JQEeQqe8AvxtiuMwx3w@public.gmane.org
http://www.narconews.com/

Narco News is supported by:

The Fund for Authentic Journalism P.O. Box 241 Natick, MA 01760
http://www.authenticjournalism.org

The Fund receives online donations at this web page:

http://www.authenticjournalism.org

Apply for your co-publisher's account, here:

http://www.narconews.com/copublisher/application.php

Subscribe for free alerts of new reports:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/narconews

Suscribete gratis para alertas de nuevos reportajes en espanol:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/narconewsandes

Inscreva-se para alertas gratuitos de reportagens do ultimo minuto em
portugues brasileiro:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/narconewsbrasil



------------------------------------



====end of forwarded email message====


---



Regards,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


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Eco Mann | 24 Apr 09:35 2008
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MMM. NY Times front page. Inmate Count in U.S. Dwarfs Other Nations’. CHARTS.

American Exception. Inmate Count in US Dwarfs Other Nations'
New York Times, United States - Apr 22, 2008. Page 1, Section A, Front Page.
And in particular they are kept incarcerated far longer than prisoners in other nations. Criminologists and legal scholars in other industrialized nations ...
From the article:

Still, it is the length of sentences that truly distinguishes American prison policy. Indeed, the mere number of sentences imposed here would not place the United States at the top of the incarceration lists. If lists were compiled based on annual admissions to prison per capita, several European countries would outpace the United States. But American prison stays are much longer, so the total incarceration rate is higher. ...

"Rises and falls in Canada's crime rate have closely paralleled America's for 40 years," Mr. Tonry wrote last year. "But its imprisonment rate has remained stable."



http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts


====article begins====




April 23, 2008
American Exception

Inmate Count in U.S. Dwarfs Other Nations'

The United States has less than 5 percent of the world's population. But it has almost a quarter of the world's prisoners.

Indeed, the United States leads the world in producing prisoners, a reflection of a relatively recent and now entirely distinctive American approach to crime and punishment. Americans are locked up for crimes — from writing bad checks to using drugs — that would rarely produce prison sentences in other countries. And in particular they are kept incarcerated far longer than prisoners in other nations.

Criminologists and legal scholars in other industrialized nations say they are mystified and appalled by the number and length of American prison sentences.

The United States has, for instance, 2.3 million criminals behind bars, more than any other nation, according to data maintained by the International Center for Prison Studies at King's College London.

China, which is four times more populous than the United States, is a distant second, with 1.6 million people in prison. (That number excludes hundreds of thousands of people held in administrative detention, most of them in China's extrajudicial system of re-education through labor, which often singles out political activists who have not committed crimes.)

San Marino, with a population of about 30,000, is at the end of the long list of 218 countries compiled by the center. It has a single prisoner.

The United States comes in first, too, on a more meaningful list from the prison studies center, the one ranked in order of the incarceration rates. It has 751 people in prison or jail for every 100,000 in population. (If you count only adults, one in 100 Americans is locked up.)

The only other major industrialized nation that even comes close is Russia, with 627 prisoners for every 100,000 people. The others have much lower rates. England's rate is 151; Germany's is 88; and Japan's is 63.

The median among all nations is about 125, roughly a sixth of the American rate.

There is little question that the high incarceration rate here has helped drive down crime, though there is debate about how much.

Criminologists and legal experts here and abroad point to a tangle of factors to explain America's extraordinary incarceration rate: higher levels of violent crime, harsher sentencing laws, a legacy of racial turmoil, a special fervor in combating illegal drugs, the American temperament, and the lack of a social safety net. Even democracy plays a role, as judges — many of whom are elected, another American anomaly — yield to populist demands for tough justice.

Whatever the reason, the gap between American justice and that of the rest of the world is enormous and growing.

It used to be that Europeans came to the United States to study its prison systems. They came away impressed.

"In no country is criminal justice administered with more mildness than in the United States," Alexis de Tocqueville, who toured American penitentiaries in 1831, wrote in "Democracy in America."

No more.

"Far from serving as a model for the world, contemporary America is viewed with horror," James Q. Whitman, a specialist in comparative law at Yale, wrote last year in Social Research. "Certainly there are no European governments sending delegations to learn from us about how to manage prisons."

Prison sentences here have become "vastly harsher than in any other country to which the United States would ordinarily be compared," Michael H. Tonry, a leading authority on crime policy, wrote in "The Handbook of Crime and Punishment."

Indeed, said Vivien Stern, a research fellow at the prison studies center in London, the American incarceration rate has made the United States "a rogue state, a country that has made a decision not to follow what is a normal Western approach."

The spike in American incarceration rates is quite recent. From 1925 to 1975, the rate remained stable, around 110 people in prison per 100,000 people. It shot up with the movement to get tough on crime in the late 1970s. (These numbers exclude people held in jails, as comprehensive information on prisoners held in state and local jails was not collected until relatively recently.)

The nation's relatively high violent crime rate, partly driven by the much easier availability of guns here, helps explain the number of people in American prisons.

"The assault rate in New York and London is not that much different," said Marc Mauer, the executive director of the Sentencing Project, a research and advocacy group. "But if you look at the murder rate, particularly with firearms, it's much higher."

Despite the recent decline in the murder rate in the United States, it is still about four times that of many nations in Western Europe.

But that is only a partial explanation. The United States, in fact, has relatively low rates of nonviolent crime. It has lower burglary and robbery rates than Australia, Canada and England.

People who commit nonviolent crimes in the rest of the world are less likely to receive prison time and certainly less likely to receive long sentences. The United States is, for instance, the only advanced country that incarcerates people for minor property crimes like passing bad checks, Mr. Whitman wrote.

Efforts to combat illegal drugs play a major role in explaining long prison sentences in the United States as well. In 1980, there were about 40,000 people in American jails and prisons for drug crimes. These days, there are almost 500,000.

Those figures have drawn contempt from European critics. "The U.S. pursues the war on drugs with an ignorant fanaticism," said Ms. Stern of King's College.

Many American prosecutors, on the other hand, say that locking up people involved in the drug trade is imperative, as it helps thwart demand for illegal drugs and drives down other kinds of crime. Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey, for instance, has fought hard to prevent the early release of people in federal prison on crack cocaine offenses, saying that many of them "are among the most serious and violent offenders."

Still, it is the length of sentences that truly distinguishes American prison policy. Indeed, the mere number of sentences imposed here would not place the United States at the top of the incarceration lists. If lists were compiled based on annual admissions to prison per capita, several European countries would outpace the United States. But American prison stays are much longer, so the total incarceration rate is higher.

Burglars in the United States serve an average of 16 months in prison, according to Mr. Mauer, compared with 5 months in Canada and 7 months in England.

Many specialists dismissed race as an important distinguishing factor in the American prison rate. It is true that blacks are much more likely to be imprisoned than other groups in the United States, but that is not a particularly distinctive phenomenon. Minorities in Canada, Britain and Australia are also disproportionately represented in those nation's prisons, and the ratios are similar to or larger than those in the United States.

Some scholars have found that English-speaking nations have higher prison rates.

"Although it is not at all clear what it is about Anglo-Saxon culture that makes predominantly English-speaking countries especially punitive, they are," Mr. Tonry wrote last year in "Crime, Punishment and Politics in Comparative Perspective."

"It could be related to economies that are more capitalistic and political cultures that are less social democratic than those of most European countries," Mr. Tonry wrote. "Or it could have something to do with the Protestant religions with strong Calvinist overtones that were long influential."

The American character — self-reliant, independent, judgmental — also plays a role.

"America is a comparatively tough place, which puts a strong emphasis on individual responsibility," Mr. Whitman of Yale wrote. "That attitude has shown up in the American criminal justice of the last 30 years."

French-speaking countries, by contrast, have "comparatively mild penal policies," Mr. Tonry wrote.

Of course, sentencing policies within the United States are not monolithic, and national comparisons can be misleading.

"Minnesota looks more like Sweden than like Texas," said Mr. Mauer of the Sentencing Project. (Sweden imprisons about 80 people per 100,000 of population; Minnesota, about 300; and Texas, almost 1,000. Maine has the lowest incarceration rate in the United States, at 273; and Louisiana the highest, at 1,138.)

Whatever the reasons, there is little dispute that America's exceptional incarceration rate has had an impact on crime.

"As one might expect, a good case can be made that fewer Americans are now being victimized" thanks to the tougher crime policies, Paul G. Cassell, an authority on sentencing and a former federal judge, wrote in The Stanford Law Review.

From 1981 to 1996, according to Justice Department statistics, the risk of punishment rose in the United States and fell in England. The crime rates predictably moved in the opposite directions, falling in the United States and rising in England.

"These figures," Mr. Cassell wrote, "should give one pause before too quickly concluding that European sentences are appropriate."

Other commentators were more definitive. "The simple truth is that imprisonment works," wrote Kent Scheidegger and Michael Rushford of the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in The Stanford Law and Policy Review. "Locking up criminals for longer periods reduces the level of crime. The benefits of doing so far offset the costs."

There is a counterexample, however, to the north. "Rises and falls in Canada's crime rate have closely paralleled America's for 40 years," Mr. Tonry wrote last year. "But its imprisonment rate has remained stable."

Several specialists here and abroad pointed to a surprising explanation for the high incarceration rate in the United States: democracy.

Most state court judges and prosecutors in the United States are elected and are therefore sensitive to a public that is, according to opinion polls, generally in favor of tough crime policies. In the rest of the world, criminal justice professionals tend to be civil servants who are insulated from popular demands for tough sentencing.

Mr. Whitman, who has studied Tocqueville's work on American penitentiaries, was asked what accounted for America's booming prison population.

"Unfortunately, a lot of the answer is democracy — just what Tocqueville was talking about," he said. "We have a highly politicized criminal justice system."




====end of article====


Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts

The November Coalition has put their charts in the public domain. See their charts page:
http://www.november.org/graphs
Their charts page says "These graphs are in the public domain."

---

-

-

The above bar chart timeline for the yearly total of U.S. inmates also includes people held in juvenile facilities.


---


Cheers,
eco mann,
Cannabis Action:
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cannabisaction
Global Marijuana March:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
WeedWiki - a Wikia wiki:
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March
http://cannabis.wikia.com/wiki/Global_Marijuana_March_2008
Charts:
http://gallery.marihemp.com/charts
Iraqi casualty photos (graphic):
http://images.google.com/images?q=iraqi+casualties
Casualty charts:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_the_Iraq_War


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