23 Jan 18:07 2004

### FREE SATELLITE SYSTEMS

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```
23 Jan 19:21 2004

### FREE SATELLITE SYSTEMS

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28 Jan 12:35 2004

### Higher Order Reasoning

```Hi
I came across this line while reading the manual, that "PowerLoom
supports limited form of higher order reasoing". Can somebody give
pointers to what exactly are these higher order features. It would
be great if  sample statements are given.

with regards,
Suresh Kumar M
```
28 Jan 20:14 2004

### Re: Higher Order Reasoning

```
On Jan 28, 2004, at 3:35 AM, Suresh Kumar M wrote:

> Hi
> 	I came across this line while reading the manual, that "PowerLoom
> supports limited form of higher order reasoing". Can somebody give
> pointers to what exactly are these higher order features. It would
> be great if  sample statements are given.

The main higher-order features that are supported are via
FRAME-PREDICATES, the HOLDS relation and the IST relation.  The
simplest form of higher-order reasoning would be something quantifying
over a particular relation.

For example:

(retrieve all (exists ?c (and (concept ?c) (holds ?c ?z))))

Here we are retrieving all objects for which there is a concept of
which they are an instance.  We are existentially quantifying over
concepts, and are thus second order.  Note that this will return
essentially all objects in the KB.  In this particular case it isn't
really an interesting query, but with some other constraints it may
turn out to be useful.

We term the reasoning limited, since (for performance reasons among
others) PowerLoom will not by itself want to generate all relations to
try in a HOLDS clause.

The frame predicates are used to make assertions about relations and
```